Conch Form Analysis, Variability, Morphological Disparity, and Mode of Life of the Frasnian (Late Devonian) Ammonoid Manticoceras from Coumiac (Montagne Noire, France)

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Intraspecific variation of conch shape has been documented for many Mesozoic ammonoids (e.g., Aguirre-Urreta, 1998; Bhaumik et al., 1993; Dagys and Weitschat, 1993a, b; Mitta, 1990; Tanabe, 1993), while Paleozoic ammonoids are commonly regarded as expressing much less variability. Traditionally, species concepts which were applied on Devonian ammonoids were strictly typological and based on the holotype and few paratypes. The investigation of larger populations was only rarely achieved (cf. Dzik, 1985 for Mesozoic ammonoids). However, it is urgently required to apply new methods such as population studies for a better understanding of phylogenetic relationships, intraspecific variability, and spatial biodiversity.