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In the search for solutions to the increase of violent conflict worldwide, the examination of correlates and causes has become increasingly important. A nontraditional approach to the issue of security should interest political scientists, economists, environmentalists, and policy-makers alike. This volume examines the strong geographic correlation between forests and incidences of violent conflict, which has stirred significant interest in the international development community (e.g., Blom et al., 2000). Recent research estimates that roughly three-quarters of Asia’s forests, two-thirds of Africa’s forests, and one-third of Latin America’s forests are located in countries that have experienced violent conflict in the past 20 years (Kaimowitz & Fauné, 2003). This geographic correlation suggests a relationship between violent conflicts and forests, although whether forests give rise to conflict or conflict decreases deforestation is unclear.