Hadley Circulation Dynamics
- Kerry H. Cook
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$29.95 / €24.95 / £19.95*
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The equations that govern the Hadley circulation are reviewed, and the observed circulation is described. Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations are used to evaluate the dominant zonally averaged momentum and thermodynamic balances within the Hadley regime.
A diagnostic application of the governing equations is used to identify the mechanisms of the Hadley circulation’s seasonal evolution between equinox and solstice states. A “vertical driving” mechanism acts through the thermodynamic balance, and is important for regulating the circulation’s strength when heating differences between seasons are close (within ~5°) to the equator. A “horizontal driving” mechanism acts through the horizontal momentum equations and is more effective off the equator. Unlike the results from axi-symmetric models in which the prescribed heating is always close to the equator, the horizontal forcing mechanism is responsible for most of the Hadley circulation seasonality in the reanalysis and GCM simulations.
The presence of continental surfaces introduces longitudinal structure into tropical diabatic heating fields, and pulls them farther from the equator. The winter Hadley cells in a simulation with continents are much stronger than in a simulation with no continents, and the summer cell is half the intensity of that when continents are included. The strengthening of the winter cell occurs through an increase in low-level wind speeds, which enhances the zonal momentum flux from the surface into the atmosphere. The development of strong monsoon circulations in the Northern Hemisphere summer and the convergence zones of the Southern Hemisphere (South Pacific [SPCZ], South Atlantic [SACZ], and South Indian Ocean [SICZ] convergence zones) shifts mass out of the subtropics, lowers the zonal mean subtropical highs, and weakens the summer cell.
- Becker, E., and G. Schmitz. 2001. Interaction between extratropical stationary waves and the zonal mean circulation. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 58: 462–480. CrossRef
- Cook, K.H. 2003. Role of continents in driving the Hadley cells. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 60: 957–976. CrossRef
- Cook, K.H., L.L. Greene, and B.N. Belcher. 2004. Seasonal forcing of the Hadley circulation. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society (submitted).
- Held, I.M., and P.J. Phillips. 1990. A barotropic model of the interaction between the Hadley cell and a Rossby wave. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 47: 856–869. CrossRef
- Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K.C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77: 437–471 (see also NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Electronic Atlas, firstname.lastname@example.org). CrossRef
- Kim, H.K., and S. Lee. 2001. Hadley cell dynamics in a primitive equation model. Part II: Nonaxisymmetric flow. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 58: 2859–2871. CrossRef
- Pfeffer, R.L. 1980. Wave-mean flow interactions in the atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 38: 1340–1359. CrossRef
- Shea, D.J., K.E. Trenberth, and R.W. Reynolds. 1990. A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology. NCAR Tech. Note, NCAR/TN-345+STR. (Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307–3000.)
- Washington, W.M., and C.L. Parkinson. 1986. An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling. Mill Valley, California: University Science Books, 422 pp.
- Hadley Circulation Dynamics
- Book Title
- The Hadley Circulation: Present, Past and Future
- pp 61-83
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Series Title
- Advances in Global Change Research
- Series Volume
- Series ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Copyright Holder
- Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
- Additional Links
- eBook Packages
- Editor Affiliations
- 2. Climate Diagnostics Center, Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, NOAA
- 3. Climate System Research Center, Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts
- Kerry H. Cook (4)
- Author Affiliations
- 4. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853-1504, USA
To view the rest of this content please follow the download PDF link above.