Peritoneal Dialysis in Children

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Like many chapters in this book, the origins of the present chapter can be traced to the 1976 discovery of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) by Moncrief, and their associates [1]. Early on, PD was widely considered to be the renal replacement therapy (RRT) of choice for acute renal failure in pediatric patients, primarily because PD is intrinsically simple, safe, and easily adapted for use in patients of all ages and sizes. However, following on the heels of the seminal work of Moncrief and Popovich, it became apparent that CAPD was a method of chronic RRT that was ideally suited to the needs of the pediatric patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as well.