Prevention of Breast Cancer Using SERMs
- Trevor J. Powles
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$29.95 / €24.95 / £19.95*
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The development of breast cancer is dependant in part on oestrogen. Suppression of ovarian function or use of anti-oestrogens will reduce the incidence of breast cancer. Many trials have now been done involving tens of thousands of healthy women evaluating the use of selective oestrogen receptor modulators to reduce the risk of breast cancer in healthy women. Tamoxifen will reduce the early incidence of breast cancer in pre and postmenopausal women by about 40% but causes vasomotor symptoms, thromboembolism and gynaecological toxicity including polyps, endometrial atypia and rarely cancer. In long follow up trials the risk reduction for breast cancer extends beyond the treatment period out to at least 15 years appearing to get larger with time indicating a true long term prevention effect. The toxicity of tamoxifen is for the most part confined to the treatment period. Raloxifene also has similar breast cancer risk reduction activity to tamoxifen but has less toxicity with no evidence of an increased risk of endometrial atypia or cancer. Tamoxifen is licensed for breast cancer risk reduction in the USA and raloxifene has also recently been approved by the FDA for such use.
- Pike M, Krailo M. Hormonal risk factors, breast tissue age and the age-incidence of breast cancer. Nature 1983; 303:767–770. CrossRef
- Cuzick J, Baum M. Tamoxifen and contralateral breast cancer (Letter). Lancet 1985; ii:282. CrossRef
- Jordan V. Effect of tamoxifen (ICI 46,474) on initiation and growth of DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinomata. Eur J Cancer 1976; 12:419–425.
- Gail M, Brinton L, Byar D et al. Projecting individualised probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are examined annually. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81:1879–86. CrossRef
- Fisher B, Bryant J, Wolmark N et al. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16(8):2672–85.
- Fisher B, Costantino J, Wickerham D et al. Tamoxifen for the prevention of breast cancer: current status of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97(22):1652–62.
- Cuzick J, Forbes J, Edwards R et al. First results from the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS-I): a randomised prevention trial. Lancet 2002; 360:817–24. CrossRef
- Cuzick J, Forbes J, Sestak I et al. Long-term results of tamoxifen prophylaxis for breast cancer—96 month follow-up of the randomised IBIS-I study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007; 99:272–282. CrossRef
- Veronesi U, Maisonneuve P, Costa A et al. Prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen: preliminary findings from the Italian randomised trial among hysterectomised women. Lancet 1998; 352:93–97.
- Powles T, Hardy J, Ashley S et al. A pilot trial to evaluate the acute toxicity and feasibility of tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1989; 60:126–131.
- Powles T, Eeles R, Ashley S et al. Interim analysis of the incidence of breast cancer in the Royal Marsden Hospital tamoxifen randomised chemoprevention trial. Lancet 1998; 352:98–101.
- Cuzick J, Powles T, Veronesi U et al. Overview of the main outcomes in the breast cancer prevention trials. Lancet 2003; 361:296–300. CrossRef
- Ettinger B, Black D, Mitlak B et al. Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Investigators. JAMA 1999; 282(7):637–645. CrossRef
- Cummings S, Eckert S, Krueger K et al. The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Results from the MORE randomized trial. JAMA 1999; 281:2189–2197. CrossRef
- Martino S, Cauley J, Barrett-Connor E et al. Continuing outcomes relevant to Evista: Breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal osteoporotic women in a randomized trial of raloxifene. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004; 96(23):1751–1761. CrossRef
- Barrett-Connor E, Mosca L, Collins P. Effects of raloxifene on cardiovascular events and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:125–137. CrossRef
- Vogel V, Costantino J, Wickerham D et al. Effects of tamoxifen vs raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes—The NSABP study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. JAMA 2006; 295:2727–2741. CrossRef
- Prevention of Breast Cancer Using SERMs
- Book Title
- Innovative Endocrinology of Cancer
- pp 232-236
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Series Title
- Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
- Series Volume
- Series ISSN
- Springer New York
- Copyright Holder
- Springer-Verlag New York
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- eBook Packages
- Editor Affiliations
- 6. Laboratory of Oncoendocrinology, Professor N.N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology
- 7. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center
- Trevor J. Powles (8)
- Author Affiliations
- 8. Parkside Oncology Clinic London, UK
To view the rest of this content please follow the download PDF link above.