Progress in Motor Control

Volume 629 of the series Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology pp 699-726

The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis – Past, Present and Future

  • Anatol G. FeldmanAffiliated withDepartment of Physiology, University of Montreal, School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University; Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation, Montreal Rehabilitation Institute and Jewish Rehabilitation Hospital Email author 
  • , Mindy F. Levin

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This chapter is a brief account of fundamentals of the equilibrium-point hypothesis or more adequately called the threshold control theory (TCT). It also compares the TCT with other approaches to motor control. The basic notions of the TCT are reviewed with a major focus on solutions to the problems of multi-muscle and multi-degrees of freedom redundancy. The TCT incorporates cognitive aspects by explaining how neurons recognize that internal (neural) and external (environmental) events match each other. These aspects as well as how motor learning occurs are subjects of further development of the TCT hypothesis.