Agrobacterium Tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation: Patterns of T-Dna Integration Into the Host Genome

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The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system is widely used to introduce genes into plants and is based on the conjugative transfer of the T-DNA to the plant nucleus. In this process, T-DNA formation, T-DNA transfer, and T-DNA integration via illegitimate recombination can be distinguished. In addition to some transformants with one T-DNA copy, transformants with multicopy T-DNA loci are also often found. In these multicopy loci, the T-DNAs often occur as inverted repeats about the right or left border. The T-DNA plant junctions frequently contain insertions of filler DNA, short regions of microhomology, small deletions of both T-DNA ends and target sequences, and integration of vector backbone sequences. To date, extensive scientific research has paved the way for a better understanding of the bacterial and plant host-driven molecular mechanisms that underlie the different steps in the Agrobacterium-mediated plant cell transformation process. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the final stage and outcome of the T-DNA transformation process, i.e. to focus on the molecular mechanism that integrates the T-DNA and, in addition, to describe the various patterns documented in the literature.