Corpus Curricula: Medical Education and the Voluntary Hospital Movement
- Jonathan Reinarz
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$29.95 / €24.95 / £19.95*
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The centrality of hospitals to medical education is a relatively recent phenomenon in the history of medicine. Like many subjects in the history of medicine, connections can be traced to the eighteenth century, if not earlier. In order to understand significant changes in medical education, and especially in the field of anatomical instruction, one must look back even further, at least to the sixteenth century. The history of hospitals also has many turning points, including the fifteenth century, when such institutions began to proliferate, many more becoming principally dedicated to the sick. However, when these two subjects are considered jointly, the eighteenth century is not just significant, but central to the development of both institutions, especially in Western Europe. According to existing historiography, it was in this period that medical education and voluntary hospitals, at least in the United Kingdom, literally came together. The hospital was not only rapidly becoming the principal site for healing, but also one of learning about the sick and training prospective practitioners.
As historians have been quick to note, however, every history has its pre-history. For that reason, this chapter commences by considering some of the numerous false starts and birth pangs of hospitalbased, or clinical, education in early modern Europe. It then considers eighteenth-century developments through the work of Hermann Boerhaave, among other less familiar staff at the University of Leiden medical school, who both embraced and popularised the clinical method of medical instruction, especially in the eighteenth century. Though not entirely an eighteenth-century figure, Boerhaave’s academic career is especially appropriate to the chronological parameters of this volume, having been appointed a lecturer in 1701.
From Leiden, many medical men took the lessons of Boerhaave and his colleagues to Paris, Vienna and across the channel and into the charitably funded, voluntary hospitals, the proliferation of which has repeatedly been identified as an eighteenth-century phenomenon, at least in England and Scotland (Porter, 1989, pp. 149–152). Rather than trace Leiden’s influence on the development of medical education throughout Europe, the final section of this chapter will examine its impact on Britain. In particular it examines the way in which clinical training quickly developed in Edinburgh and, in successive decades, inspired London practitioners to attach schools to the hospitals to which they were affiliated. Though a new generation of provincial medical schools sought to retain local boys who might otherwise have travelled to hospital schools in Edinburgh and London, or even further afield, few instructors desired to change the way in which pupils were being educated. In less than a century, hospital-based instruction had become the tried and tested method of educating physicians.
- Beekman, F. (1950a).William Hunter’s early medical education, Part 1: His studies under William Cullen and at Edinburgh with Alexander Munro. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Winter, 72–84.
- Beekman, F. (1950b). William Hunter’s early medical education, Part 2: He goes to London to complete his studies and remains there. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Spring, 178–195.
- Boerhaave, H. (1719). A method of studying physick. London: C. Rivington.
- Bynum, B. (1985). Physicians, hospitals and career structures in eighteenth-century London. In W. F. Bynum, & R. Porter (Eds.), William Hunter and the eighteenth-century medical world (pp. 105–128). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Cope, Z. (1959). The Royal College of Surgeons of England: A history. London: Anthony Blond.
- Emerson, R. L. (2004). The founding of the Edinburgh Medical School. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 59, 183–218. CrossRef
- Foucault, M. (1993). The birth of the clinic. London: Routledge.
- Gelfand, T. (1985). ‘Invite the philosopher, as well as the charitable’: hospital teaching as private enterprise in Hunterian London. In W. F. Bynum, & R. Porter (Eds.), William Hunter and the eighteenth-century medical world (pp. 129–151). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Getz, F. (1995). Medical education in later Medieval England. In V. Nutton, & R. Porter (Eds.), The history of medical education in Britain (pp. 76–93). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
- Guthrie, D. (1959). The influence of the Leiden School upon Scottish medicine. Medical History, 3, 108–122.
- Harrison, M. (2004). Disease and the Modern World. Cambridge: Polity Press.
- Hays, J.N. (1983). The London Lecturing Empire, 1800–50. In I. Inkster, & J.Morrell (Eds.), Metropolis and Province: Science in British culture, 1780–1850. London: Hutchinson.
- Jewson, N. D. (1976). The disappearance of the sick man from medical cosmology, 1770–1870. Sociology, 10, 225–244. CrossRef
- Johnson, S. (1903). The Works of Samuel Johnson (Vol. 14). New York: Pafraets.
- Lane, J. (1985). The role of apprenticeship in eighteenth-century medical education in England. In W. F. Bynum, & R. Porter (Eds.), William Hunter and the eighteenth-century medical world (pp. 57–103). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Lane, J. (1996). Apprenticeship in England, 1600–1914. London: UCL Press.
- Lawrence, S. (1988). Entrepreneurs and private enterprise: The development of medical lecturing in London, 1775–1820. Bulletin for the History of Medicine, 62, 171–192.
- Lawrence, S. (1995). Anatomy and address: Creating medical gentlemen in eighteenth-century London. In V. Nutton, & R. Porter (Eds.), The history of medical education in Britain (pp. 199–228). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
- Lindeboom, G. A. (1968). Hermann Boerhaave: The man and his work. London: Methuen & Co.
- Nutton, V., & Porter, R. (Eds.), (1995). The history of medical education in Britain. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
- O’Malley, C. D. (1970). Medical education during the Renaissance. In C. D. O’Malley (Ed.), The history of medical education (pp. 89–102). Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Porter, R. (1989). The gift relation: Philanthropy and provincial hospitals in eighteenth-century England. In L. Granshaw, & R. Porter (Eds.), The hospital in history (pp. 149–178). London: Routledge.
- Richardson, R. (1993). Death, dissection and the destitute. London: Routledge.
- Ripman, H. A. (1951). Guy’s hospital, 1725–1948. London: Guy’s.
- Risse, G. (1986). Hospital life in Enlightenment Scotland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Snapper, I. (1956). Meditations on medicine and medical education, past and present. New York: Grune & Stratton.
- Waddington, K. (2003). Medical education at StBartholomew’s hospital. Woodbridge: Suffolk, Boydell.
- Corpus Curricula: Medical Education and the Voluntary Hospital Movement
- Book Title
- Brain, Mind and Medicine: Essays in Eighteenth-Century Neuroscience
- Book Part
- Section B
- pp 43-52
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Springer US
- Copyright Holder
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- eBook Packages
To view the rest of this content please follow the download PDF link above.