2009, pp 1-15
Date: 26 Nov 2008

Flame-Retardant Additives for Lithium-Ion Batteries

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13.1 Introduction

Lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries possess high-energy density compared with other secondary batteries such as nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) and nickel–cadmium (Ni–Cd) batteries. Since the Li-Ion battery, which consists of carbon anode (graphites, cokes, glassy carbons etc.) and lithiated transitional metal oxide cathode (LiCoO2, LiNiO2, LiMn2O4 etc.), provides higher voltage and longer life in smaller, lighter packages than the other batteries and the Li-Ion batteries also maintain their capacity well through repeated rechargings, it has become a common power source in mobile electronic devices such as digital still cameras, camcorders, laptop-type computers, cellular phones, and so forth. Small Li-Ion cells with a capacity of 2,000–2,400 mAh (18,650 size) are now commercially available for these electronic devices. Due to the above-mentioned inherent marvelous properties, Li-Ion batteries have attracted much interest in recent years as a power source for ...