Chapter

Pulmonary Infection

Volume 857 of the series Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology pp 19-24

Date:

Progress in the Diagnosis and Control of Ebola Disease

  • Agnieszka Woźniak-KosekAffiliated withEpidemiological Response Center of Polish Armed Forces Email author 
  • , Jarosław KosekAffiliated withOtolaryngology Clinic, Military Institute of Medicine
  • , Jerzy MierzejewskiAffiliated withMilitary Institute of Hygiene and EpidemiologyUniversity of Technology and Humanities
  • , Piotr RapiejkoAffiliated withOtolaryngology Clinic, Military Institute of Medicine

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Abstract

Ebola hemorrhagic fever is one of numerous viral hemorrhagic fevers. It is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (gorillas and chimpanzees). This article discusses the history of Ebola disease, already known routes of infection together with defining prevention methods and treatment trials. The importance of increasing awareness of the risk of disease among people who do not inhabit endemic regions is emphasized. This risk is associated especially with the increasing popularity of tourism to African countries, even to those where the virus is endemic. The research conducted over the years shows that three species of frugivorous bats are subjected to contamination by Ebola, but the infection is asymptomatic in them. It is believed that the saliva of these mammals and other body fluids may be a potential source of infection for primates and humans. In the laboratory, infection through small-particle aerosols has been demonstrated in primates, and airborne spread among humans is strongly suspected, although it has not yet been conclusively demonstrated. The importance of this route of transmission remains unclear. Poor hygienic conditions can aid the spread of the virus. These observations suggest approaches to the study of routes of transmission to and among humans.

Keywords

Ebola virus Epidemiology Diagnosis Prevention