Fluorescent Proteins II

Volume 12 of the series Springer Series on Fluorescence pp 125-161


Fluorescent Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators and Their In Vivo Application

  • Thomas GenschAffiliated withInstitute of Complex Systems 4 (ICS-4), Cellular Biophysics Email author 
  • , Dagmar KaschubaAffiliated withInstitute of Complex Systems 4 (ICS-4), Cellular Biophysics

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Calcium ions have a pivotal role in all living organisms. Monitoring and quantifying changes of the calcium concentration in living cells, tissues or organisms is a challenging task. To achieve this goal, specific calcium sensor proteins were designed and artificially assembled. An important group of these proteins is commonly referred to as fluorescent genetically encoded calcium indicators (fGECIs). In fGECIs, fluorescent proteins are fused to calcium-binding protein motifs and additionally harbour modules that interact with the calcium-binding domains. Since the first publications in 1997, a multitude of fGECIs has been generated, characterized and applied in many studies. This chapter gives an overview on the usage of fGECIs in the recent past, considering 236 publications from January 2008 to August 2010. Outstanding studies are presented that investigate intracellular calcium changes with respect to physiological functions at the level of cellular organelles, cells, as well as cellular networks and whole animals such as worms, flies and mice.

Graphical Abstract


Calcium in vivo measurements GECI Mitochondria Microdomains Neuronal activity Chronic imaging Genetically encoded sensors Fluorescent protin