Chapter

Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Novel Neuropeptides

Volume 46 of the series Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation pp 201-212

Date:

Neuromedin S: Discovery and Functions

  • Kenji MoriAffiliated withDepartment of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute
  • , Mikiya MiyazatoAffiliated withDepartment of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute
  • , Kenji KangawaAffiliated withDepartment of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute Email author 

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Abstract

Neuromedin S, a novel neuropeptide of 36 amino acids, was isolated from rat brain as an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptors FM-3/GPR66 and FM-4/TGR-1, identified to date as type-1 and type-2 neuromedin U (NMU) receptors, respectively. The peptide was designated neuromedin S (NMS) because it is specifically expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. NMS is structurally related to NMU; these peptides share a C-terminal core structure. In this review, we will outline the recent discoveries regarding the structure, cognate receptors, distribution, and possible physiological functions of NMS.