Fullerenes and Related Structures

Volume 199 of the series Topics in Current Chemistry pp 93-134



  • Jan C. HummelenAffiliated withStratingh Institute & Materials Science Center, University of Groningen
  • , Cheryl Bellavia-LundAffiliated withSYMYX Technologies
  • , Fred WudlAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 4505A Molecular Science Building, University of California

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The state of the art in heterofullerene chemistry and physics is reviewed with emphasis on azafullerenes. The macroscopic synthetic methods that have been developed for aza[60] fullerene compounds since 1995 have led to a whole new and rich area in the science of fullerenes: cage modification chemistry. The synthetic routes towards aza[60]fullerene and its derivatives are reviewed in Sect. 2. The synthetic routes for aza[70]fullerene and its derivatives are summarized in Sect. 3. Section 4 comprises the theoretical and experimental work on the physicochemical properties of azafullerene compounds. Finally, in Sect. 5, the literature regarding heterofullerenes other than monoazafullerenes is reviewed.


Heterofullerene Azafullerene Borafullerene Fullerene Dimer Azirenofullerene Azafulleroid Fullerene Salt Boron Holeyball Dopeyball Dopyball