Date: 29 Jul 2005

Skin-color modeling and adaptation

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This paper studies a statistical skin-color model and its adaptation. It is revealed that (1) human skin colors cluster in a small region in a color space; (2) the variance of a skin color cluster can be reduced by intensity normalization, and (3) under a certain lighting condition, a skin-color distribution can be characterized by a multivariate normal distribution in the normalized color space. We then propose an adaptive model to characterize human skin-color distributions for tracking human faces under different lighting conditions. The parameters of the model are adapted based on the maximum likelihood criterion. The model has been successfully applied to a real-time face tracker and other applications.