An Overview of Hybrid Simulation Phenomena and Their Support by Simulation Packages

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Abstract

Hybrid systems combine continuous behavior evolution specified by differential equations with discontinuous changes specified by discrete event switching logic. Numerical simulation of continuous behavior and of discrete behavior is well understood. However, to facilitate simulation of mixed continuous/discrete systems a number of specific hybrid simulation issues must be addressed. This paper presents an overview of phenomena that emerge in simulation of hybrid systems, reported in previously published literature. They can be classified as (i) event handling, (ii) run-time equation processing, (iii) discontinuous state changes, (iv) event iteration, (v) comparing Dirac pulses, and (vi) chattering. Based on these phenomena, numerical simulation requires the implementation of specific hybrid simulation features. An evaluation of existing simulation packages with respect to these features is presented.