On Defining Proofs of Knowledge

  • Mihir Bellare
  • Oded Goldreich
Conference paper

DOI: 10.1007/3-540-48071-4_28

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 740)
Cite this paper as:
Bellare M., Goldreich O. (1993) On Defining Proofs of Knowledge. In: Brickell E.F. (eds) Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO’ 92. CRYPTO 1992. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 740. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg


The notion of a “proof of knowledge,” suggested by Goldwasser, Micali and Rackoff, has been used in many works as a tool for the construction of cryptographic protocols and other schemes. Yet the commonly cited formalizations of this notion are unsatisfactory and in particular inadequate for some of the applications in which they are used. Consequently, new researchers keep getting misled by existing literature. The purpose of this paper is to indicate the source of these problems and suggest a definition which resolves them.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mihir Bellare
    • 1
  • Oded Goldreich
    • 2
  1. 1.High Performance Computing and CommunicationsIBM T.J. Watson Research CenterYorktown HeightsUSA
  2. 2.Computer Science DepartmentTechnionHaifaIsrael

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