Shannon, C., “A Mathematical Theory of Communication.” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 27, pp. 379–423, July 1948. Available online at

**http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/ms/what/shannonday/paper.html**. Shannon begins this pioneering paper on information theory by observing that

*“the fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point.”* He then proceeds to thoroughly establish the foundations of information theory, so that his framework and terminology have remained standard practice. In 1949, Shannon published an innovative approach to cryptography, based on his previous Information Theory paper, entitled Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. This work is now generally credited with transforming cryptography from an art to a science. Shannon’s Tenth Theorem states (cf. Krippendorf and other current wording):

*“With the addition of a correction channel equal to or exceeding in capacity the amount of noise in the original channel, it is possible to so encode the correction data sent over this channel that all but an arbitrarily small fraction of the errors contributing to the noise are corrected. This is not possible if the capacity of the correction channel is less than the noise.”*