CIL: Intermediate Language and Tools for Analysis and Transformation of C Programs
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This paper describes the C Intermediate Language: a highlevel representation along with a set of tools that permit easy analysis and source-to-source transformation of C programs.
Compared to C, CIL has fewer constructs. It breaks down certain complicated constructs of C into simpler ones, and thus it works at a lower level than abstract-syntax trees. But CIL is also more high-level than typical intermediate languages (e.g., three-address code) designed for compilation. As a result, what we have is a representation that makes it easy to analyze and manipulate C programs, and emit them in a form that resembles the original source. Moreover, it comes with a front-end that translates to CIL not only ANSI C programs but also those using Microsoft C or GNU C extensions.
We describe the structure of CIL with a focus on how it disambiguates those features of C that we found to be most confusing for program analysis and transformation. We also describe a whole-program merger based on structural type equality, allowing a complete project to be viewed as a single compilation unit. As a representative application of CIL, we show a transformation aimed at making code immune to stack-smashing attacks. We are currently using CIL as part of a system that analyzes and instruments C programs with run-time checks to ensure type safety. CIL has served us very well in this project, and we believe it can usefully be applied in other situations as well.
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- CIL: Intermediate Language and Tools for Analysis and Transformation of C Programs
- Book Title
- Compiler Construction
- Book Subtitle
- 11th International Conference, CC 2002 Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2002 Grenoble, France, April 8–12, 2002 Proceedings
- pp 213-228
- Print ISBN
- Online ISBN
- Series Title
- Lecture Notes in Computer Science
- Series Volume
- Series ISSN
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Copyright Holder
- Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
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- Editor Affiliations
- 4. Dept. of Computer Science, University of Victoria
- Author Affiliations
- 5. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley
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