Furukawa J., Sako K. (2001) An Efficient Scheme for Proving a Shuffle. In: Kilian J. (eds) Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO 2001. CRYPTO 2001. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 2139. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient protocol for proving the correctness of a shuffle, without leaking how the shuffle was performed. Using this protocol, we can prove the correctness of a shuffle of n data with roughly 18n exponentiations, where as the protocol of Sako-Kilian[SK95] required 642n and that of Abe[Ab99] required 22n log n. The length of proof will be only 211n bits in our protocol, opposed to 218n bits and 214n log n bits required by Sako-Kilian and Abe, respectively. The proposed protocol will be a building block of an efficient, universally verifiable mix-net, whose application to voting system is prominent.