Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO 2001

Volume 2139 of the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science pp 368-387


An Efficient Scheme for Proving a Shuffle

  • Jun FurukawaAffiliated withNEC Corporation
  • , Kazue SakoAffiliated withNEC Corporation


In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient protocol for proving the correctness of a shuffle, without leaking how the shuffle was performed. Using this protocol, we can prove the correctness of a shuffle of n data with roughly 18n exponentiations, where as the protocol of Sako-Kilian[SK95] required 642n and that of Abe[Ab99] required 22n log n. The length of proof will be only 211 n bits in our protocol, opposed to 218 n bits and 214 n log n bits required by Sako-Kilian and Abe, respectively. The proposed protocol will be a building block of an efficient, universally verifiable mix-net, whose application to voting system is prominent.


Mix-net Permutation Electronic Voting Universal Verifiability