Chapter

Plant Ecology, Herbivory, and Human Impact in Nordic Mountain Birch Forests

Volume 180 of the series Ecological Studies pp 125-138

Forest Defoliation Risks in Birch Forest by Insects Under Different Climate and Land Use Scenarios in Northern Europe

  • S. NeuvonenAffiliated withKevo Subarctic Research Institute, University of Turku
  • , H. BylundAffiliated withDepartment of Entomology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • , H. TømmervikAffiliated withNorwegian Institute for Nature Research

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