Ukkonen E. (1983) On approximate string matching. In: Karpinski M. (eds) Foundations of Computation Theory. FCT 1983. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 158. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
An algorithm is given for computing the edit distance as well as the corresponding sequence of editing steps (insertions, deletions, changes, transpositions of adjacent symbols) between two strings a1a2...am and b1b2...bn. The algorithm needs time 0(s·min(m,n)) and space 0(s2) where s is the edit distance, that is, the minimum number of editing steps needed to transform a1a2...am to b1b2...bn. For small s this is a considerable improvement over the best previously known algorithm that needs time and space 0(mn). If the editing sequence is not required, the space complexity of our algorithm reduces to 0(s). Given a threshold value t, the algorithm can also be modified to test in time 0(t·min(m,n)) and space 0(t) whether the edit distance of the two strings is at most t.