Chapter

Quadruplex Nucleic Acids

Volume 330 of the series Topics in Current Chemistry pp 111-177

Date:

Visualizing the Quadruplex: From Fluorescent Ligands to Light-Up Probes

  • Eric LargyAffiliated withUMR 176 CNRS “Synthèse, Conception et Vectorisation de Biomolécules”, Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche
  • , Anton GranzhanAffiliated withUMR 176 CNRS “Synthèse, Conception et Vectorisation de Biomolécules”, Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche
  • , Florian HamonAffiliated withUMR 176 CNRS “Synthèse, Conception et Vectorisation de Biomolécules”, Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche
  • , Daniela VergaAffiliated withUMR 176 CNRS “Synthèse, Conception et Vectorisation de Biomolécules”, Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche
  • , Marie-Paule Teulade-FichouAffiliated withUMR 176 CNRS “Synthèse, Conception et Vectorisation de Biomolécules”, Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche Email author 

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

Detection of quadruplex structures by visual methods is a major challenge of the quadruplex nucleic acid research area. Consequently, considerable efforts are under way for the discovery of quadruplex specific agents endowed with fluorescence properties. In this review chapter we propose a comprehensive and critical overview of the diverse molecular design and strategies that have been described to identify quadruplex-selective fluorescent probes. Innovative compounds as well as classical DNA dyes are reviewed. The compounds have been divided into three classes: (1) “light-up” probes that display a strong enhancement upon G4 binding, (2) “light-off” probes that display a decreased fluorescence upon binding, and (3) permanent probes (“tagged” G4-binders) that exhibit no variation of fluorescence but display quadruplex binding specificity. The labeling performances of probes in various analytical contexts (in solution, in gel, at the level of chromosomes, and in fixed cells) are also reported and commented on when available. Finally we address the strengths and weaknesses of each probe class and highlight the critical features that must be addressed in developing a practicable quadruplex-specific labeling agent.

Keywords

Fluorescence Fluorescent probes Nucleic acids Quadruplex DNA