Chapter

Biosensors Based on Aptamers and Enzymes

Volume 140 of the series Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology pp 1-28

Date:

Future of Biosensors: A Personal View

  • Frieder W. SchellerAffiliated withFraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMTInstitute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam Email author 
  • , Aysu YarmanAffiliated withFraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMTInstitute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam
  • , Till BachmannAffiliated withDivision of Pathway Medicine, University of Edinburgh Chancellor’s Building
  • , Thomas HirschAffiliated withInstitute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg
  • , Stefan KubickAffiliated withFraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT
  • , Reinhard RennebergAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
  • , Soeren SchumacherAffiliated withFraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT
  • , Ulla WollenbergerAffiliated withInstitute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam
  • , Carsten TellerAffiliated withFraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT
    • , Frank F. BierAffiliated withFraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMTInstitute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam

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Abstract

Biosensors representing the technological counterpart of living senses have found routine application in amperometric enzyme electrodes for decentralized blood glucose measurement, interaction analysis by surface plasmon resonance in drug development, and to some extent DNA chips for expression analysis and enzyme polymorphisms. These technologies have already reached a highly advanced level and need minor improvement at most. The dream of the “100-dollar” personal genome may come true in the next few years provided that the technological hurdles of nanopore technology or of polymerase-based single molecule sequencing can be overcome. Tailor-made recognition elements for biosensors including membrane-bound enzymes and receptors will be prepared by cell-free protein synthesis. As alternatives for biological recognition elements, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been created. They have the potential to substitute antibodies in biosensors and biochips for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances, proteins, viruses, and living cells. They are more stable than proteins and can be produced in large amounts by chemical synthesis. Integration of nanomaterials, especially of graphene, could lead to new miniaturized biosensors with high sensitivity and ultrafast response. In the future individual therapy will include genetic profiling of isoenzymes and polymorphic forms of drug-metabolizing enzymes especially of the cytochrome P450 family. For defining the pharmacokinetics including the clearance of a given genotype enzyme electrodes will be a useful tool. For decentralized online patient control or the integration into everyday “consumables” such as drinking water, foods, hygienic articles, clothing, or for control of air conditioners in buildings and cars and swimming pools, a new generation of “autonomous” biosensors will emerge.

Graphical Abstract

https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F10_2013_251/MediaObjects/306033_1_En_251_Figa_HTML.gif

Keywords

Biosensors Molecularly imprinted polymers Personalized medicine