The Choice of Suitable Online Analytical Techniques and Data Processing for Monitoring of Bioprocesses

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Abstract

With increasing pressure from regulatory authorities on industry to develop processes embracing process analytical technology (PAT) initiatives, there is a growing demand to establish reliable tools and systems capable of meeting this need. With regard to monitoring and control of bioprocesses, this need translates to a search for robust instrumentation capable of monitoring the critical process parameters in real time. The application of such technologies at all stages of the process, from the initial R&D phase to process optimisation and production, enhances process understanding and paves the way for the development of control platforms. An examination of the PAT concept and selected tools (NIR, MIR, Raman, dielectric spectroscopy and calorimetry) are presented here. A description of each tool is given, with particular emphasis on the nature of the signal produced and how these relate to measurements of biomass, metabolites and product. A description of the signal processing that is necessary to gain meaningful results from the different tools is also given, together with online data reconciliation techniques based on mass and energy balances. Many techniques such as those based on vibrational spectroscopy are of particular interest, since they are capable of monitoring several critical process parameters which are typically controlled in a bioprocess. A window of application for each of the techniques, when used in the area of bioprocessing, is suggested based on their uses and inherent limitations.

Graphical Abstract