Chapter

Engineering of Stem Cells

Volume 114 of the series Advances in Biochemical Engineering / Biotechnology pp 185-199

Date:

Totipotency, Pluripotency and Nuclear Reprogramming

  • Shoukhrat MitalipovAffiliated withDivision of Reproductive Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science UniversityOregon Stem Cell Center, Oregon Health and Science UniversityDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University
  • , Don WolfAffiliated withDivision of Reproductive Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University

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Abstract

Mammalian development commences with the totipotent zygote which is capable of developing into all the specialized cells that make up the adult animal. As development unfolds, cells of the early embryo proliferate and differentiate into the first two lineages, the pluripotent inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. Pluripotent cells can be isolated, adapted and propagated indefinitely in vitro in an undifferentiated state as embryonic stem cells (ESCs). ESCs retain their ability to differentiate into cells representing the three major germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm or ectoderm or any of the 200+ cell types present in the adult body. Since many human diseases result from defects in a single cell type, pluripotent human ESCs represent an unlimited source of any cell or tissue type for replacement therapy thus providing a possible cure for many devastating conditions. Pluripotent cells resembling ESCs can also be derived experimentally by the nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. Reprogrammed somatic cells may have an even more important role in cell replacement therapies since the patient’s own somatic cells can be used for reprogramming thereby eliminating immune based rejection of transplanted cells. In this review, we summarize two major approaches to reprogramming: (1) somatic cell nuclear transfer and (2) direct reprogramming using genetic manipulations.

Keywords

Embryonic stem cells iPS cells Pluripotent Somatic cell nuclear transfer Totipotent