Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Puroindoline A and B Alleles in Chinese Improved Cultivars And Landraces

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Kernel hardness conditioned by puroindoline genes has a profound effect on milling, baking and end-use quality of bread wheat. In this study, 251 current cultivars and advanced lines, 166 historical cultivars, and 219 landraces from China were investigated for their kernel hardness and puroindoline alleles using molecular and biochemical markers. The frequencies of soft, mixed and hard genotypes were 31.5%, 21.1%, and 47.4%, respectively, in current cultivars, 45.2%, 13.9% and 40.9%, respectively, in historical cultivars, whereas 42.7%, 24.3% and 33.0%, respectively, in Chinese landraces. Among hard wheat genotypes, frequencies of PINA null, Pinb-D1b and new allele Pinb-D1p genotypes were 43.8%, 12.3% and 39.7%, respectively, in hard wheat of landraces, while 48.5%, 36.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in historical hard wheats, and 13.4%, 76.5%, and 8.4%, respectively, in current cultivars. New alleles Pinb-D1q and Pinb-D1t, was identified in winter wheat Jingdong 11 and two landraces Guangtouxianmai and Hongmai, respectively. A new Pina-D1 allele, designated Pina-D1m, was detected in the landrace Hongheshang. Among the PINA null genotypes, Pina-D1l was detected in five landraces, while another novel Pina-D1 allele, designed as Pina-D1n, was identified in six landraces