Eco-efficiency has become one of the buzzwords of our time. The term reflects the paradigm shift that has occurred since the late eighties. Rather than regarding ecology and economy as mutually opposing entities, it is now widely recognised that eco-efficient production is a major opportunity to enhance a company's competitive position in the market. Correspondingly, the general view of industry's role in the sustainable development debate has also changed: rather than being identified as a part of the problem, business is now seen increasingly as a part of the solution. All this means that industry faces a new range of opportunities and challenges - in product design, material and supplier choice, producer responsibility for the waste stage, and product image.