Alwin, D. F., &

Hauser, R. M. (1975). The decomposition of effects in path analysis.

*American Sociological Review*,

**40**, 37–47.

CrossRef
American Psychological Association. (2001). *Publication manual of the American Psychological Association* (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Aroian, L. A. (1944). The probability function of the product of two normally distributed variables.

*Annals of Mathematical Statistics*,

**18**, 265–271.

CrossRef
Baron, R. M., &

Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator—mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.

*Journal of Personality & Social Psychology*,

**51**, 1173–1182.

CrossRef
Bauer, D. J., Preacher, K. J., &

Gil, K. M. (2006). Conceptualizing and testing random indirect effects and moderated mediation in multilevel models: New procedures and recommendations.

*Psychological Methods*,

**11**, 142–163.

CrossRefPubMed
Bentler, P. M. (2007). Can scientifically useful hypotheses be tested with correlations?

*American Psychologist*,

**62**, 772–782.

CrossRef
Bentler, P. M., &

Lee, S. Y. (1983). Covariance structures under polynomial constraints: Applications to correlation and alpha-type structural models.

*Journal of Educational Statistics*,

**8**, 207–222.

CrossRef
Bobko, P., &

Rieck, A. (1980). Large sample estimators for standard errors of functions of correlation coefficients.

*Applied Psychological Measurement*,

**4**, 385–398.

CrossRef
Bollen, K. A. (1989). *Structural equations with latent variables*. New York: Wiley.

Bollen, K. A., &

Stine, R. (1990). Direct and indirect effects: Classical and bootstrap estimates of variability.

*Sociological Methodology*,

**20**, 115–140.

CrossRef
Cheung, G. W., &

Lau, R. S. (2008). Testing mediation and suppression effects of latent variables: Bootstrapping with structural equation models.

*Organizational Research Methods*,

**11**, 296–325.

CrossRef
Cheung, M. W.-L. (2007). Comparison of approaches to constructing confidence intervals for mediating effects using structural equation models. *Structural Equation Modeling*, **14**, 227–246.

Cheung, M. W.-L. (2009). Constructing approximate confidence intervals for parameters with structural equation models.

*Structural Equation Modeling*,

**16**, 267–294.

CrossRef
Cheung, M. W.-L., &

Chan, W. (2005). Meta-analytic structural equation modeling: A two-stage approach.

*Psychological Methods*,

**10**, 40–64.

CrossRefPubMed
Cheung, M. W.-L., &

Chan, W. (2009). A two-stage approach to synthesizing covariance matrices in meta-analytic structural equation modeling.

*Structural Equation Modeling*,

**16**, 28–53.

CrossRef
Cohen, J. (1988). *Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences* (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cohen, J. (1994). The world is round (

*p* <.05).

*American Psychologist*,

**49**, 997–1003.

CrossRef
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). *Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences* (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cudeck, R. (1989). Analysis of correlation matrices using covariance structure models.

*Psychological Bulletin*,

**105**, 317–327.

CrossRef
Cumming, G., Fidler, F., Leonard, M., Kalinowski, P., Christiansen, A., Kleinig, A., et al. (2007). Statistical reform in psychology: Is anything changing?

*Psychological Science*,

**18**, 230–232.

CrossRefPubMed
Davison, A. C., & Hinkley, D. V. (1997). *Bootstrap methods and their application*. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Edwards, J. R., &

Lambert, L. S. (2007). Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: A general analytical framework using moderated path analysis.

*Psychological Methods*,

**12**, 1–22.

CrossRefPubMed
Fritz, M. S., &

MacKinnon, D. P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect.

*Psychological Science*,

**18**, 233–239.

CrossRefPubMed
Goodman, L. A. (1960). On the exact variance of products.

*Journal of the American Statistical Association*,

**55**, 708–713.

CrossRef
Harlow, L. L., Mulaik, S. A., & Steiger, J. H. (1997). *What if there were no significance tests?* Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). *Statistical methods for meta-analysis*. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

Hedges, L. V., &

Vevea, J. L. (1998). Fixed- and random-effects models in meta-analysis.

*Psychological Methods*,

**3**, 486–504.

CrossRef
Hoyle, R. H., & Kenny, D. A. (1999). Sample size, reliability, and tests of statistical mediation. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), *Statistical strategies for small sample research* (pp. 195–222). Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage.

Hunter, J. E., &

Hamilton, M. A. (2002). The advantages of using standardized scores in causal analysis.

*Human Communication Research*,

**28**, 552–561.

CrossRef
Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2004). *Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings* (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

James, L. R., &

Brett, J. M. (1984). Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation.

*Journal of Applied Psychology*,

**69**, 307–321.

CrossRef
James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A., &

Brett, J. M. (2006). A tale of two methods.

*Organizational Research Methods*,

**9**, 233–244.

CrossRef
Jöreskog, K. G. (1999). *How large can a standardized coefficient be?* Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International. Available at www.ssicentral.com.

Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1996). *LISREL 8: A user’s reference guide*. Chicago: Scientific Software International.

Jöreskog, K. G., Sörbom, D., Du Toit, S., & Du Toit, M. (1999). *LISREL 8: New Statistical Features*. Chicago: Scientific Software International.

Judd, C. M., &

Kenny, D. A. (1981). Process analysis: Estimating mediation in treatment evaluations.

*Evaluation Review*,

**5**, 602–619.

CrossRef
Kirk, R. E. (1996). Practical significance: A concept whose time has come.

*Educational & Psychological Measurement*,

**56**, 746–759.

CrossRef
Kline, R. B. (2004).

*Beyond significance testing: Reforming data analysis methods in behavioral research*. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

CrossRef
MacKinnon, D. P. (2000). Contrasts in multiple mediator models. In J. S. Rose, L. Chassin, C. C. Presson, & S. J. Sherman (Eds.), *Multivariate applications in substance use research: New methods for new questions* (pp. 141–160). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). *Introduction to statistical mediation analysis*. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., &

Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis.

*Annual Review of Psychology*,

**58**, 593–614.

CrossRefPubMed
MacKinnon, D. P., Fritz, M. S., Williams, J., &

Lockwood, C. M. (2007). Distribution of the product confidence limits for the indirect effect: Program PRODLIN.

*Behavior Research Methods*,

**39**, 384–389.

CrossRefPubMed
MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J. L., &

Lockwood, C. M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding, and suppression effect.

*Prevention Science*,

**1**, 173–181.

CrossRefPubMed
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., &

Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test the significance of the mediated effect.

*Psychological Methods*,

**7**, 83–104.

CrossRefPubMed
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., &

Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods.

*Multivariate Behavioral Research*,

**39**, 99–128.

CrossRefPubMed
MacKinnon, D. P., Warsi, G., &

Dwyer, J. H. (1995). A simulation study of mediated effect measures.

*Multivariate Behavioral Research*,

**30**, 41–62.

CrossRefPubMed
Morgan-Lopez, A. A., &

MacKinnon, D. P. (2006). Demonstration and evaluation of a method for assessing mediated moderation.

*Behavior Research Methods*,

**38**, 77–87.

CrossRefPubMed
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). *Mplus user’s guide* (5th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.

Neale, M. C., Boker, S. M., Xie, G., & Maes, H. H. (2005). *Mx: Statistical modeling* (6th ed.). Richmond, VA: Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Psychiatry.

Neale, M. C., &

Miller, M. B. (1997). The use of likelihood-based confidence intervals in genetic models.

*Behavior Genetics*,

**27**, 113–120.

CrossRefPubMed
Olkin, I., &

Finn, J. D. (1995). Correlation redux.

*Psychological Bulletin*,

**118**, 155–164.

CrossRef
Olkin, I., & Siotani, M. (1976). Asymptotic distribution of functions of a correlation matrix. In S. Ideka (Ed.), *Essays in probability and statistics* (pp. 235–251). Tokyo: Shinko Tsusho.

Pituch, K. A., Whittaker, T. A., &

Stapleton, L. M. (2005). A comparison of methods to test for mediation in multisite experiments.

*Multivariate Behavioral Research*,

**40**, 1–23.

CrossRef
Preacher, K. J., &

Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models.

*Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers*,

**36**, 717–731.

CrossRef
Preacher, K. J., &

Hayes, A. F. (2008a). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models.

*Behavior Research Methods*,

**40**, 879–891.

CrossRefPubMed
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008b). Contemporary approaches to assessing mediation in communication research. In A. F. Hayes, M. D. Slater, & L. B. Snyder (Eds.), *The Sage sourcebook of advanced data analysis methods for communication research* (pp. 13–54). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypothesis: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. *Multivariate Behavioral Research*, **42**, 185–227.

Quinones-Vidal, E., Lopez-Garcia, J. J., Penaranda-Ortega, M., &

Tortosa-Gil, F. (2004). The nature of social and personality psychology as reflected in JPSP, 1965–2000.

*Journal of Personality & Social Psychology*,

**86**, 435–452.

CrossRef
Raykov, T., Brennan, M., Reinhardt, J. P., &

Horowitz, A. (2008). Comparison of mediated effects: A correlation structure modeling approach.

*Structural Equation Modeling*,

**15**, 603–626.

CrossRef
Raykov, T., &

Shrout, P. E. (2002). Reliability of scales with general structure: Point and interval estimation using a structural equation modeling approach.

*Structural Equation Modeling*,

**9**, 195–212.

CrossRef R Development Core Team (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at www.r-project.org.

Rindskopf, D. (1984). Using phantom and imaginary latent variables to parameterize constraints in linear structural models.

*Psychometrika*,

**49**, 37–47.

CrossRef
Shrout, P. E., &

Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations.

*Psychological Methods*,

**7**, 422–445.

CrossRefPubMed
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models.

*Sociological Methodology*,

**13**, 290–312.

CrossRef
Sobel, M. E. (1986). Some new results on indirect effects and their standard errors in covariance structural models.

*Sociological Methodology*,

**16**, 159–186.

CrossRef
Stuart, A., & Ord, J. K. (1994). *Kendall’s advanced theory of statistics: Vol. 1. Distribution theory* (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Tamhane, A. C., & Dunlop, D. D. (2000). *Statistics and data analysis: From elementary to intermediate*. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Taylor, A. B., MacKinnon, D. P., &

Tein, J. (2008). Tests of the threepath mediated effect.

*Organizational Research Methods*,

**11**, 241–269.

CrossRef
Wansbeek, T., & Meijer, E. (2000). *Measurement error and latent variables in econometrics*. New York: Elsevier.

Wilkinson, L., Task Force on Statistical Inference, American Psychological Association, Science Directorate, Washington DC (1999). Statistical methods in psychology journals: Guidelines and explanations.

*American Psychologists*,

**54**, 594–604.

CrossRef
Williams, J., &

MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Resampling and distribution of the product methods for testing indirect effects in complex models.

*Structural Equation Modeling*,

**15**, 23–51.

PubMed Yung, Y.-F. (2008, July). *Testing and contrasting mediation or indirect effects in SEM: An analytic approach and its implementation*. Paper presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Durham, NH.