The eyes have it! Reflexive orienting is triggered by nonpredictive gaze
Normal subjects were presented with a simple line drawing of a face looking left, right, or straight ahead. A target letter F or T then appeared to the left or the right of the face. All subjects participated in target detection, localization, and identification response conditions. Although subjects were told that the line drawing’s gaze direction (the cue) did not predict where the target would occur, response time in all three conditions was reliably faster when gaze was toward versus away from the target. This study provides evidence for covert, reflexive orienting to peripheral locations in response to uninformative gaze shifts presented at fixation. The implications for theories of social attention and visual orienting are discussed, and the brain mechanisms that may underlie this phenomenon are considered.
- Baron-Cohen, S. (1995).Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Bertelson, P. (1967). The time course of preparation.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,19, 272–279. CrossRef
- Campbell, R., Heywood, C. A., Cowey, A., Regard, M., &Landis, T. (1990). Sensitivity to eye gaze in prosopagnosic patients and monkeys with superior temporal sulcus ablation.Neuropsychologia,28, 1123–1142. CrossRef
- Cheal, M. L., &Lyon, D. R. (1991). Central and peripheral precuing of forced-choice discrimination.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,43A, 859–880.
- Corkum, V., &Moore, C. (1995). Development of joint visual attention in infants. In C. Moore & P. Dunham (Eds.),Joint attention: Its origins and role in development (pp. 61–83). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Driver, J.,Davis, G.,Kidd, P.,Maxwell, E.,Ricciardelli, P., &Baron-Cohen, S. (in press). Gaze perception triggers visuospatial orienting by adults in a reflexive manner.Visual Cognition.
- Hains, S. M. J., &Muir, D. W. (1996). Infant sensitivity to adult eye direction.Child Development,67, 1940–1951. CrossRef
- Harries, M. H., &Perrett, D. I. (1991). Visual processing of faces in temporal cortex: Physiological evidence for a modular organization and possible anatomical correlates.Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,3, 9–24. CrossRef
- Hood, B. M., Willen, J. D., &Driver, J. (1998). Adults’ eyes trigger shifts of visual attention in human infants.Psychological Science,9, 131–134. CrossRef
- Jonides, J. (1981). Voluntary versus automatic control over the mind’s eye’s movement. In J. B. Long & A. D. Baddeley (Eds.),Attention and performance IX (pp. 187–203). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Klein, R. M., Kingstone, A., &Pontefract, A. (1992). Orienting of visual attention. In K. Rayner (Ed.),Eye movements and visual cognition: Scene perception and reading (pp. 46–63). Amsterdam: Elsevier, North-Holland.
- Kling, A. S., &Brothers, L. A. (1992). The amygdala and social behavior. In J. P. Aggleton (Ed.),The amygdala: Neurobiological aspects of emotion, memory, and mental dysfunction (pp. 353–377). New York: Wiley-Liss.
- Langton, S. R. H., &Bruce, V. (1997, July).Reflexive visual orienting in response to the social attention of others. Paper presented at a meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society, Cardiff, Wales.
- Langton, S. R. H., &Bruce, V. (in press). Reflexive social orienting.Visual Cognition.
- Maurer, D. (1985). Infants’ perception of facedness. In T. M. Field & N. A. Fox (Eds.),Social perception in infants (pp. 73–100). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
- Mowrer, O. H. (1940). Preparatory set (expectancy)-Some methods of measurements.Psychological Review Monographs,52 (Whole No. 233).
- Müller, H. J., &Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1989). Spatial cueing and the relation between the accuracy of “where” and “what” decisions in visual search.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,41A, 747–773.
- Perrett D. I., Smith, P. A. J., Potter, D. D., Mistlin, A. J., Head, A. S., Milner, A. D., &Jeeves, M. A. (1985). Visual cells in the temporal cortex sensitive to face view and gaze direction.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Series B,223, 293–317. CrossRef
- Posner, M. I. (1978).Chronometric explorations of mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Posner, M. I. (1980). Orienting of attention.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,32, 3–25. CrossRef
- Posner, M. I., &Petersen, S. E. (1990). The attention system of the human brain.Annual Review of Neuroscience,13, 25–42. CrossRef
- Posner, M. I., &Snyder, C. R. R. (1975). Facilitation and inhibition in the processing of signals. In P. M. A. Rabbitt & S. Dornic (Eds.),Attention and performance V (pp. 669–682). New York: Academic Press.
- Rafal, R. D., Calabresi, P., Brennan, C., &Sciolto, T. (1989). Saccade preparation inhibits reorienting to recently attended locations.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance,15, 673–685. CrossRef
- Rafal, R. D., Posner, M. I., Friedman, J. H., Inhoff, A.W., &Bernstein, E. (1988). Orienting of visual attention in progressive supranuclear palsy.Brain,111, 267–280. CrossRef
- Von Grünau, M., Ânston, C. (1995). The detection of gaze direction: A stare-in-the-crowd effect.Perception,24, 1297–1313. CrossRef
- Young, A. W., Aggleton, J. P., Hellawell, D. J., Johnson, M., Broks, P., &Hanley, J. R. (1995). Face processing impairments after amygdalotomy.Brain,118, 15–24. CrossRef
- The eyes have it! Reflexive orienting is triggered by nonpredictive gaze
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Volume 5, Issue 3 , pp 490-495
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links