Motor and cognitive factors in the modification of a reflex
By closing a hand-held switch, subjects caused a miniature solenoid to deliver a tap to their own foreheads. (1) The amplitude of elicited eyeblinks was reduced when the delay between switch closure and tap was 50 meec or less. (2) Subjects who expected that switch closure would produce an immediate tap exhibited smaller blinks to such taps than did subjects who expected switch closure to produce a delayed tap. (3) The inhibitory effects of a reflex-modifying tone prior to tap were the same when taps were self-presented as when they were presented by the experimenter. (4) When blinks could be elicited by either a tap or a loud noise, the smallest responses occurred when subjects knew which to expect. (5) On a given trial, the inhibition afforded by the particular stimulus, motor, and cognitive factors operating at the time tended to add in an algebraic fashion.
- Bjorkstrand, P.-A. Electrodermal responses as affected by subject versus experimenter controlled noxious stimulation.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973,97, 365–369. CrossRef
- Dykman, B. M., &Ison, J. R. Temporal integration of acoustic stimulation obtained in reflex inhibition in rats and humans.Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 1979,93, 939–945. CrossRef
- Furedy, J. J., &Klajner, F. On evaluating autonomic and verbal indices of negative perception.Psychophysiology, 1974,11, 121–124. CrossRef
- Graham, F. K., &Murray, G. M. Discordant effects of weak prestimulation on magnitude and latency of the reflex blink.Physioiogical Psychology, 1977,5, 108–114.
- Grings, W. W. Preparatory set variables related to classical conditioning of autonomic responses.Psychological Review, 1960,67, 243–252. CrossRef
- Haggard, E. Some conditions determining adjustment during and readjustment following experimentally induced stress.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1943,33, 257–284. CrossRef
- Hoffman, H. S., Cohen, M. E., &Stitt, C. L. Acoustic augmentation and inhibition of the human eyeblink.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 1981,7, 1357–1362. CrossRef
- Hoffman, H. S., &Iron, J. R. Reflex modification in the domain of startle: I. Some empirical findings and their implications for how the nervous system processes sensory input.Psychological Review, 1980,87, 175–189. CrossRef
- Ison, J. R., Zuckerman, M., &Russo, J. M. Combination rules for inhibitory stimuli.Journal of Experimental Psychology: AnimaI Behavior Processes, 1975,1, 318–325. CrossRef
- Krauter, E. E., Leonard, D. W., &Ison, J. R. Inhibition of the human eyeblink by a brief acoustic stimulus.Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 1973,2, 28–37.
- Lykken, D. T., &Tellegen, A. On the validity of the perception hypothesis.Psychophysiology, 1974,11, 125–132. CrossRef
- Maltzman, I., &Wolff, C. Preference for immediate versus delayed noxious stimulation and concomittant GSR.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970,83, 76–79. CrossRef
- Marsh, R. R., &Hoffman, H. S. Eyeblink elicitation and measurement in the human infant: A circuit modification.Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 1981,13, 707. CrossRef
- Marsh, R. R., Hoffman, H. S., &Stitt, C. L. Eyeblink elicitation and measurement in the human infant.Behavior Research Methods& Instrumentation, 1979,11, 498–502. CrossRef
- Sanes, J. N. Excitability of cutaneous eyeblink reflex in humans during organization and performance of voluntary movements. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, 1979.
- Silverstein, L. D., &Graham, F. K. Obicularis oculi excitability and prestimulation effects during REM and NREM sleep.Psychophysiology, 1979,16, 177. (Abstract)
- Staub, E., Tursky, B., &Schwartz, G. E. Self-control and predictability: Their effects on reactions to aversive stimulation.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1971,18, 157–162. CrossRef
- Sternberg, S. The discovery of processing stages: Extensions of Donder’s method.Acta Psychologica, 1969,30, 276–315. CrossRef
- Stitt, C. L., Hoffman, H. S., Marsh, R. R., &Schwartz, G. M. Modification of the pigeon’s visual startle reaction by the sensory environment.Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1976,90, 601–619. CrossRef
- Yerkes, R. M. The sense of hearing in frogs.Journal of Comparative Neurology & Psychology, 1905,15, 279–304. CrossRef
- Motor and cognitive factors in the modification of a reflex
Perception & Psychophysics
Volume 34, Issue 3 , pp 214-220
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors