Why are names of people associated with so many phonological retrieval failures?
- J. Richard Hanley
- … show all 1 hide
Two experiments are reported that revisit the issue of why people’s names are more difficult to recall than common names such as the names of objects. In Experiment 1, retrieval of the names of a set of object pictures was compared with recall of a set of names of famous faces. The object and face sets were matched for preexperimental familiarity. The results showed significantly more tip-of-the tongue (TOT) states and significantly poorer name recall for faces than for objects. Although the overall numbers of incorrect answers for the two sets of items did not differ, the incorrect answers in the face condition were mostly “don’t know” responses, whereas incorrect answers for objects were mostly alternative names. In Experiment 2, written definitions were used instead of pictures, and target items were selected so as to keep the number of alternatives to a minimum. Under these circumstances, there were no differences in either the number of items correctly named or the number of TOTs for common and people’s names. These findings are consistent with the views of Brédart (Memory, 1, 351–366, 1993), who argued that there are fewer documented TOTs for common names because a semantically related alternative often comes to mind when a participant is experiencing, or is about to experience, a retrieval failure.
- Brédart, S. (1993). Retrieval failures in face naming. Memory, 1, 351–366. CrossRef
- Brown, R., & McNeill, D. (1966). The “tip of the tongue” phenomenon. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 5, 325–337. CrossRef
- Budd, M.-J., Hanley, J. R., & Griffiths, Y. (2011). Simulating children’s retrieval errors in picture naming: A test of Foygel & Dell’s (2000) semantic/phonological model of speech production. Journal of Memory and Language, 64, 74–87. CrossRef
- Burke, D. M., MacKay, D. G., Worthley, J. S., & Wade, E. (1991). On the tip of the tongue: What causes word finding failures in young and older adults? Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 542–579. CrossRef
- Cross, E. S., & Burke, D. M. (2004). Do alternative names block young and older adults’ retrieval of proper names? Brain and Language, 89, 174–181. CrossRef
- Evrard, M. (2002). Ageing and lexical access to common and proper names in picture naming. Brain and Language, 81, 174–179. CrossRef
- Foygel, D., & Dell, G. S. (2000). Models of impaired lexical access in speech production. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 182–216. CrossRef
- Gentileschi, V., Sperber, S., & Spinnler, H. (2001). Crossmodal agnosia for familiar people as a consequence of right infero-polar temporal atrophy. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 18, 439–463.
- Goldrick, M. (2006). Limited interaction in speech production: Chronometric, speech error, and neuropsychological evidence. Language and Cognitive Processes, 21, 817–855. CrossRef
- Gollan, T. H., & Brown, A. S. (2006). From tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) data to theoretical implications in two steps: When more TOTs means better retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 462–483. CrossRef
- Griffin, Z. M. (2010). Retrieving personal names, referring expressions, and terms of address. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 53, pp. 345–387). San Diego: Academic Press.
- Hanley, J. R., & Chapman, E. (2008). Partial knowledge in a tip of the tongue state about two and three-word proper names. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 156–160. CrossRef
- Hanley, J. R., & Kay, J. (1998). Proper name anomia and anomia for the names of people: Functionally dissociable impairments? Cortex, 34, 155–158. CrossRef
- Harley, T. A., & Bown, H. E. (1998). What causes a tip-of-the-tongue state? Evidence for lexical neighbourhood effects in speech production. British Journal of Psychology, 89, 151–174. CrossRef
- Jaeger, T. F. (2008). Categorical data analysis: Away from ANOVAs (transformation or not) and towards logit mixed models. Journal of Memory and Language, 59, 434–446. CrossRef
- Kay, J., & Hanley, J. R. (2002). Preservation of memory for people in semantic memory: Further category-specific semantic dissociation. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 19, 113–133.
- Lyons, F., Hanley, J. R., & Kay, J. (2002). Anomia for common names with preserved retrieval of names of people. Cortex, 38, 23–35. CrossRef
- Lyons, F., Kay, J., Hanley, J. R., & Haslam, C. (2006). Selective preservation of memory for people in the context of semantic memory disorder: Patterns of association and dissociation. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2887–2898. CrossRef
- Martins, I. P., & Farrajota, L. (2007). Proper and common names: A double dissociation. Neuropsychologia, 45, 1744–1756. CrossRef
- Meyer, A. S., & Bock, K. (1992). The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation? Memory & Cognition, 20, 715–726. CrossRef
- Nelson, T. O., & Narens, L. (1980). Norms of 300 general-information questions: Accuracy of recall, latency of recall, and feeling of knowing ratings. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 338–368. CrossRef
- Perfect, T., & Hanley, J. R. (1992). The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Do experimenter-presented interlopers have any effect? Cognition, 45, 55–75. CrossRef
- Rastle, K. G., & Burke, D. M. (1996). Priming the tip of the tongue: Effects of prior processing on word retrieval in young and older adults. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 586–605. CrossRef
- Schwartz, B. L. (1999). Sparkling at the end of the tongue: The etiology of tip-of-the-tongue phenomenology. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6, 379–393. CrossRef
- Semenza, C. (2006). Retrieval pathways for common and proper names. Cortex, 42, 884–891. CrossRef
- Semenza, C., & Zettin, M. (1988). Generating proper names: A case of selective inability. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 5, 711–721. CrossRef
- Valentine, T., Brennen, T., & Brédart, S. (1996). The cognitive psychology of proper names. London: Routledge. CrossRef
- Why are names of people associated with so many phonological retrieval failures?
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Volume 18, Issue 3 , pp 612-617
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Face recognition
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology, University of Essex, Colchester, Essex, CO4 3SQ, UK