Article

Learning & Behavior

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 104-114

First online:

Modeling imitation and emulation in constrained search spaces

  • Alberto AcerbiAffiliated withUniversity of Stockholm Email author 
  • , Claudio TennieAffiliated withMax Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
  • , Charles L. NunnAffiliated withHarvard University

Abstract

Social transmission of behavior can be realized through distinct mechanisms. Research on primate social learning typically distinguishes two forms of information that a learner can extract from a demonstrator: copying actions (defined as imitation) or copying only the consequential results (defined as emulation). We propose a decomposition of these learning mechanisms (plus pure individual learning) that incorporates the core idea that social learning can be represented as a search for an optimal behavior that is constrained by different kinds of information. We illustrate our approach with an individual-based model in which individuals solve tasks in abstract “spaces” that represent behavioral actions, results, and benefits of those results. Depending on the learning mechanisms at their disposal, individuals have differential access to the information conveyed in these spaces. We show how different classes of tasks may provide distinct advantages to individuals with different learning mechanisms and discuss how our approach contributes to current empirical and theoretical research on social learning and culture.

Keywords

Imitation Emulation Social learning Culture Individual based modeling