, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 692-718

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Local and global effects of motivation on cognitive control

Abstract

Motivation has been found to enhance cognitive control, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are still poorly understood. Cued motivational incentives (e.g., monetary rewards) can modulate cognitive processing locally—that is, on a trial-by-trial basis (incentive cue effect). Recently, motivational incentives have also been found to produce more global and tonic changes in performance, as evidenced by performance benefits on nonincentive trials occurring within incentive blocks (incentive context effect). In two experiments involving incentivized cued task switching, we provide systematic evidence that the two effects are dissociable. Through behavioral, diffusion-modeling, and individual-differences analyses, we found dissociations between local and global motivational effects that were linked to specific properties of the incentive signals (i.e., timing), while also ruling out alternative interpretations (e.g., practice and speed—accuracy trade-off effects). These results provide important clues regarding the neural mechanisms by which motivation exerts both global and local influences on cognitive control.

CABN wishes to announce the retraction of this article. As detailed on the website of the Health and Human Services Office of Research Integrity (ORI), Adam Savine, the first author, has admitted to falsifying data contained in this report. The other authors of the manuscript were cleared of any involvement in this data falsification. Specifically, according to the ORI website, Adam Savine admitted that he “falsified data in Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2012 to show an unambiguous dissociation between local and global motivational effects. Specifically, Respondent exaggerated (1) the effect of incentive context on response times and error rates in Table 1 and Figures 1 and 3 for experiment 1 and (2) the effect of incentive cue timing on response times and error rates in Table 2 and in Figures 6, 9, and S2 for experiment 2.” The other authors on this manuscript are now undertaking a complete reanalysis of the raw data collected for this study, and will pursue publications of the correct results as warranted.