Memory & Cognition

, Volume 38, Issue 8, pp 1087–1100

Explicit warnings reduce but do not eliminate the continued influence of misinformation


DOI: 10.3758/MC.38.8.1087

Cite this article as:
Ecker, U.K.H., Lewandowsky, S. & Tang, D.T.W. Mem Cogn (2010) 38: 1087. doi:10.3758/MC.38.8.1087


Information that initially is presumed to be correct, but that is later retracted or corrected, often continues to influence memory and reasoning. This occurs even if the retraction itself is well remembered. The present study investigated whether the continued influence of misinformation can be reduced by explicitly warning people at the outset that they may be misled. A specific warning— giving detailed information about the continued influence effect (CIE)—succeeded in reducing the continued reliance on outdated information but did not eliminate it. A more general warning—reminding people that facts are not always properly checked before information is disseminated—was even less effective. In an additional experiment, a specific warning was combined with the provision of a plausible alternative explanation for the retracted information. This combined manipulation further reduced the CIE but still failed to eliminate it altogether.

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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Psychology (M304)University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia