Internal consistency reliability of the fractionated and whole University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test
The internal consistency reliability (ICR) of the 40-item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and its 10-, 20-, and 30-item fractions was explored, as well as the relationships between the fractions and the entire 40-item test. Pearson correlation coefficients (rs) were computed among all independent combinations and permutations of the four 10-item UPSIT booklets using data from 774 subjects. The median r values of the 10- and 20-item combinations were used to establish the ICRs of the 10- and 20-item tests. The ICRs of the 30- and 40-item tests were estimated using the Spearman-Brown formula and the medianrs of the 20-item combinations. Additional ICR estimates of the 40-item UPSIT were obtained from nonsymmetrical fractions using the Horst formula. The ICRs for the UPSIT and its 10-, 20-, and 30-item fractions were 0.922, 0.752, 0.855 and 0.898, respectively. No major sex differences emerged. Estimates of correlations between (1) single booklets and two-booklet combinations and (2) the 40-item UPSIT using Guilford’s (1953) correction for nonindependence ranged from 0.812 to 0.871. Overall, these results indicate that (1) the UPSIT and its 10-, 20-, and 30-item fragments have very high ICRs and (2) individual UPSIT booklets or their combinations can be used to assess smell function in a reliable manner where extreme time constraints are present (e.g., in surveys and in brief neuropsychological test batteries).
- Amoore, J. E. (1971). Olfactory genetics and anosmia. In L. M. Beidler (Ed.),Handbook of sensory physiology: Vol. 4. Chemical Senses: Part 1. Olfaction (pp. 245–256). New York: Springer-Vedag.
- Doty, R. L. (1989).The Smell Identification Test™ administration manual (2nd ed.). Haddonfield, NJ: Sensonics, Inc.
- Toty, R. L., Deems, D. A., &Stellar, S. (1988). Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: A general deficit unrelated to neurologic signs, disease stage, or disease duration.Neurology,38, 1237–1244.
- Doty, R. L., Newhoose, M. G., &Azzalina, J. D. (1985). Internal consistency and short-term test-retest reliability of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.Chemical Senses,10, 297–300. CrossRef
- Doty, R. L., Reyes, P. F., &Gregor, T. (1987). Presence of both odor identification and detection deficits in Alzheimer’s disease.Brain Research Bulletin,18, 597–600. CrossRef
- Doty, R. L., Shaman, P., Applebaum, S. L., Giberson, R, Sikorsky, L., &Rosenberg, L. (1984). Smell identification ability: Changes with age.Science,226, 1441–1443. CrossRef
- Doty, R. L., Shaman, P., &Dann, M. (1984). Development of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test: A standardized microencapsulated test of olfactory function.Physiology & Behavior (Monograph),32, 489–502. CrossRef
- Guileopd, J. P. (1953). The correlation of an item with a composite of the remaining items in a test.Educational & Psychological Measurement,13, 87–93. CrossRef
- Guileord, J. P. (1954).Psychometric methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Horst, P. (1951). Estimating total test reliability from parts of unequal length.Educational & Psychological Measurement,11,368–371. CrossRef
- Jafek, B. W., Moran, D. T., Eller, P. M., Rowley, J. C., &Jafek, T. B. (1987). Steroid-dependent anosmia.Archives of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery,113, 547–549.
- Jones-Gotman, M., &Zatorre, R. J. (1988). Olfactory identification deficits in patients with focal cerebral excision.Neuropsychologia,26, 387–400. CrossRef
- Mair, R. G., Doty, R. L., Kelly, K. M., Wilson, C. S., Langlais, P. J., McEntee, W. J., &Vollmecke, T. A. (1986). Multimodal sensory discrimination deficits in Korsakoff’s psychosis.Neuropsychologia,24, 831–839. CrossRef
- Mester, A. F., Doty, R. L., Shapiro, A., &Frye, R. E. (1988). Influence of body tilt within the sagittal plane on olfactory function.Aviation, Space, & Environmental Medicine,59, 734–737.
- Schwartz, B., Doty, R. L., Monroe, C., Frye, R. E., & Barker, S. (in press). Olfactory function in chemical workers exposed to acrylate and methacrylate vapors.American Journal of Public Health.
- Warner, M. D., Peabody, C. A., Flattery, J. J., &Tinklenberg, J. R. (1986). Olfactory deficits and Alzheimer’s disease.Biological Psychiatry,21, 116–118. CrossRef
- Weiffenbach, J. M., McCarthy, V. P. (1984). Olfactory deficits in cystic fibrosis: Distribution and severity.Chemical Senses,9, 193–199. CrossRef
- Wright, H. N. (1987). Characterization of olfactory dysfunction.Archives of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery,113, 163–168.
- Yoshida, M. (1984). Correlation analysis of detection threshold data for “standard test” odors.Bulletin of the Faculty of Science & Engineering of Chuo University,27, 343–353.
- Internal consistency reliability of the fractionated and whole University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test
Perception & Psychophysics
Volume 45, Issue 5 , pp 381-384
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors