Perception & Psychophysics

, Volume 68, Issue 4, pp 685–701

Reaching with alien limbs: Visual exposure to prosthetic hands in a mirror biases proprioception without accompanying illusions of ownership

  • Nicholas P. Holmes
  • Hendrikus J. Snijders
  • Charles Spence
Article

DOI: 10.3758/BF03208768

Cite this article as:
Holmes, N.P., Snijders, H.J. & Spence, C. Perception & Psychophysics (2006) 68: 685. doi:10.3758/BF03208768
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Abstract

In five experiments, we investigated the effects of visual exposure to a real hand, a rubber hand, or a wooden block on reaching movements made with the unseen left hand behind a parasagittal mirror. Participants reached from one of four starting positions, corresponding to four levels of conflict between the proprioceptively and visually specified positions of the reaching hand. Reaching movements were affected most by exposure to the real hand, intermediately by the rubber hand, and least of all by the wooden block. When the posture and/or movement of the visible hand was incompatible with that of the reaching hand, the effect on reaching was reduced. A “rubber hand illusion” questionnaire revealed that illusions of ownership of the rubber hand were not strongly correlated with reaching performance. This research suggests that proprioception is recalibrated following visual exposure to prosthetic hands and that this recalibration is independent of the rubber hand illusion.

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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas P. Holmes
    • 1
  • Hendrikus J. Snijders
    • 1
    • 2
  • Charles Spence
    • 1
  1. 1.University of OxfordOxfordEngland
  2. 2.Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Espace et ActionINSERM Unité 534BronFrance