GPOWER: A general power analysis program


DOI: 10.3758/BF03203630

Cite this article as:
Erdfelder, E., Faul, F. & Buchner, A. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers (1996) 28: 1. doi:10.3758/BF03203630


GPOWER is a completely interactive, menu-driven program for IBM-compatible and Apple Macintosh personal computers. It performs high-precision statistical power analyses for the most common statistical tests in behavioral research, that is,t tests,F tests, andχ2 tests. GPOWER computes (1) power values for given sample sizes, effect sizes andα levels (post hoc power analyses); (2) sample sizes for given effect sizes,α levels, and power values (a priori power analyses); and (3)α andβ values for given sample sizes, effect sizes, andβ/α ratios (compromise power analyses). The program may be used to display graphically the relation between any two of the relevant variables, and it offers the opportunity to compute the effect size measures from basic parameters defining the alternative hypothesis. This article delineates reasons for the development of GPOWER and describes the program’s capabilities and handling.

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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychologisches Institut der Universität BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Psychologie an der Universität KielKielGermany
  3. 3.FB I-PsychologieUniversität TrierTrierGermany