GPOWER: A general power analysis program

Abstract

GPOWER is a completely interactive, menu-driven program for IBM-compatible and Apple Macintosh personal computers. It performs high-precision statistical power analyses for the most common statistical tests in behavioral research, that is,t tests,F tests, andχ 2 tests. GPOWER computes (1) power values for given sample sizes, effect sizes andα levels (post hoc power analyses); (2) sample sizes for given effect sizes,α levels, and power values (a priori power analyses); and (3)α andβ values for given sample sizes, effect sizes, andβ/α ratios (compromise power analyses). The program may be used to display graphically the relation between any two of the relevant variables, and it offers the opportunity to compute the effect size measures from basic parameters defining the alternative hypothesis. This article delineates reasons for the development of GPOWER and describes the program’s capabilities and handling.

The authors would like to thank S. Dilger for performing the evaluation of the GPOWER accuracy mode calculations and J. Bredenkamp as well as several anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on earlier drafts of this paper. We also are grateful to V. Fischer, P. Frensch, J. Funke, P. Onghena, R. Pohl, E. Stirner, and I. Wegener, who served as beta testers of GPOWER.