Conceptual processing of text during skimming and rapid sequential reading
- Michael E. J. Masson
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Potential conceptual processing difficulties associated with abbreviating the duration of eye fixations during reading were explored using a rapid sequential visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm in which each word of a text was briefly presented (for as little as 86 msec) at a fixed location. Question answering and accuracy of summaries associated with RSVP were found to be inferior to performance obtained when subjects skimmed conventionally presented passages. RSVP performance was enhanced by inserting brief pauses between sentences. The pauses produced only minor changes in the perceptual characteristics of RSVP, but they probably allowed subjects to more readily process information that had been buffered in working memory. These results imply that eye fixation durations in conventional reading reflect the time constraints of conceptual processing operations (as well as constraints of planning and initiating eye movements), but also that these conceptual operations may be distributed over later fixations and even postponed until a syntactic boundary is reached.
- Just, M. A., Carpenter, P. A., & Masson, M. E. J.What eye fixations tell us about speed-reading, skimming, and normal reading. Manuscript in preparation, 1983.
- Masson, M. E. J., Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A.Comprehension of gist and details by speed-readers, skimmers, and normal readers. Manuscript in preparation, 1983.
- Juola, J. F., Cocklin, T., Chen, H. -C., & Granaas, M.Effects of segment size and structure on reading RSVP text. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Minneapolis, Minnesota, November 1982.
- Aaronson, D., &Scarborough, H. S. Performance theories for sentence coding: Some quantitative models.Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1977,16, 277–303. CrossRef
- Arnold, D. C., &Tinker, M. A. The fixational pause of the eyes.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1939,15, 271–280. CrossRef
- Bartlett, F. C. Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1932.
- Bransford, J. D., &Johnson, M. K. Contextual prerequisites for understanding: Some investigations of comprehension and recall.Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1972,11, 717–726. CrossRef
- Chen, H. -C. Comprehension and memory in reading rapidserial presentations of text. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas, 1982.
- Dooling, D. J., &Lachman, R. Effects of comprehension on retention of prose.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971,88, 216–222. CrossRef
- Fischler, I., &Bloom, P. A. Rapid processing of the meaning of sentences.Memory & Cognition, 1980,8, 216–225. CrossRef
- Gibson, E. J., &Levin, H. The psychology of reading. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1975.
- Green, D. W., Mitchell, D. C., &Hammond, E. J. The scheduling of text integration processes in reading.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1981,33A, 455–464.
- Intraub, H. Rapid conceptual identification of sequentially presented pictures.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1981,7, 604–610. CrossRef
- Jarvella, R. J. Immediate memory and discourse processing. In G. H. Bower (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 13). New York: Academic Press, 1979.
- Juola, J. F., Ward, N., &McNamara, T. Visual search and reading rapid, serial presentations of letter strings, words, and text.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1982,111, 208–227. CrossRef
- Just, M. A., &Carpenter, P. A. A theory of reading: From eye fixations to comprehension.Psychological Review, 1980,117, 329–354. CrossRef
- Just, M. A., Carpenter, P. A., &Woolley, J. D. Paradigms and processes in reading comprehension.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1982,111, 228–238. CrossRef
- Kieras, D. E. Initial mention as a signal to thematic content in technical passages.Memory & Cognition, 1980,8, 345–353. CrossRef
- Kieras, D. E. The role of major referents and sentence topics in the construction of passage macrostructure.Discourse Processes, 1981,4, 1–15. CrossRef
- Kintsch, W., &van Dijk, T. A. Toward a model of text comprehension and production.Psychological Review, 1978,85, 363–394. CrossRef
- Masson, M. E. J. Cognitive processes in skimming stories.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 1982,8, 400–417. CrossRef
- Miller, J. R., &Kintsch, W. Readability and recall of short prose passages: A theoretical analysis.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1980,6, 335–354. CrossRef
- Mitchell, D. C., &Green, D. W. The effects of context and content on immediate processing in reading.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1978,30, 609–636. CrossRef
- Ortony, A. Remembering, understanding, and representation.Cognitive Science, 1978,2, 53–69. CrossRef
- Perfetti, C. A., &Lesgold, A. M. Discourse comprehension and sources of individual differences. In M. A. Just & P. A. Carpenter (Eds.),Cognitive processes in comprehension. Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum, 1977.
- Potter, M. C. Short-term conceptual memory for pictures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1976,2, 509–522. CrossRef
- Potter, M. C., Kroll, J. F., &Harris, C. Comprehension and memory in rapid sequential reading. In R. S. Nickerson (Ed.),Attention and performance VIII. Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum, 1980.
- Poulton, E. C. Time for reading and memory.British Journal of Psychology, 1958,49, 230–245. CrossRef
- Poulton, E. C. Rapid reading.Journal of Documentation, 1963,19, 168–172.
- Rayner, K. The perceptual span and peripheral cues in reading.Cognitive Psychology, 1975,7, 65–81. CrossRef
- Rayner, K. Eye movements in reading and information processing.Psychological Bulletin, 1978,85, 618–660. CrossRef
- Rayner, K., Inhoff, A. W., Morrison, R. E., Swwiaczek, M. L., &Bertera, J. H. Masking of foveal and parafoveal vision during eye fixations in reading.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1981,7, 167–179. CrossRef
- Rayner, K., &McConkie, G. W. What guides a reader’s eye movements?Vision Research, 1976,16, 829–837. CrossRef
- Rayner, K.,&McConkie, G. W. Perceptual processes in reading: The perceptual spans. In A. S. Reber & D. L. Scarborough (Eds.),Toward a psychology of reading. Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum, 1977.
- Rayner, K., &Pollatsek, A. Eye movement control during reading: Evidence for direct control.Quarterly Journal of experimental Psychology, 1981,33A, 351–373.
- Reed, A. V. Microcomputer display timing: Problems and solutions.Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 1979,11, 572–576. CrossRef
- Salthouse, T. A., &Ellis, C. L. Determinants of eye-fixation duration.American Journal of Psychology, 1980,93, 207–234. CrossRef
- Salthouse, T. A., Ellis, C. L., Diener, D. C., &Somberg, B. L. Stimulus processing during eye fixations.Journal of experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1981,7, 611–623. CrossRef
- Sticht, T. G. Comprehending reading at work. In M. A. Just & P. A. Carpenter (Eds.),Cognitive processes in comprehension. Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum, 1977.
- Taylor, S. E. An evaluation of forty-one trainees who had recently completed the “Reading Dynamics” program. In E. P. Bliesmer & R. C. Staiger (Eds.),Eleventh yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Milwaukee: National Reading Conference, 1962.
- Thibadeau, R., Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. A model of the time course and content of reading.Cognitive Science, in press.
- Conceptual processing of text during skimming and rapid sequential reading
Memory & Cognition
Volume 11, Issue 3 , pp 262-274
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, V8W 2Y2, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada