Processing doubly quantified sentences: Evidence from eye movements Authors
Received: 17 March 2003 Accepted: 19 December 2003 DOI:
Cite this article as: Filik, R., Paterson, K.B. & Liversedge, S.P. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (2004) 11: 953. doi:10.3758/BF03196727 Abstract
We investigated the processing of doubly quantified sentences, such as
Kelly showed a photo to every critic, that are ambiguous as to whether the indefinite ( a photo) specifies single or multiple referents. Ambiguity resolution requires the computation of relative quantifier scope: Whether a or every takes wide scope, thereby determining how many entities or events are to be represented. In an eye-tracking experiment, we manipulated quantifier order and whether continuations were singular or plural, for constructions with the direct or the indirect object occurring first. We obtained effects consistent with the on-line processing of relative scope at the doubly quantified phrase and considered two possible explanations for a preference for singular continuations to the quantified sentence. We conclude that relative quantifier scope is computed on line during reading but may not be a prerequisite for the resolution of definite anaphors, unless required by secondary tasks.
This research was supported by an Experimental Psychology Society Study Visit Grant and Grant S19168 from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (U.K.). A complete set of experimental materials may be obtained by e-mail from the first author.
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