Animal Learning & Behavior

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 36–52

How do apes ape?

Authors

    • Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution and Scottish Primate Research Group, School of PsychologyUniversity of St. Andrews
  • Victoria Horner
    • Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution and Scottish Primate Research Group, School of PsychologyUniversity of St. Andrews
  • Carla A. Litchfield
    • Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution and Scottish Primate Research Group, School of PsychologyUniversity of St. Andrews
  • Sarah Marshall-Pescini
    • Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution and Scottish Primate Research Group, School of PsychologyUniversity of St. Andrews
Article

DOI: 10.3758/BF03196005

Cite this article as:
Whiten, A., Horner, V., Litchfield, C.A. et al. Animal Learning & Behavior (2004) 32: 36. doi:10.3758/BF03196005

Abstract

In the wake of telling critiques of the foundations on which earlier conclusions were based, the last 15 years have witnessed a renaissance in the study of social learning in apes. As a result, we are able to review 31 experimental studies from this period in which social learning in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans has been investigated. The principal question framed at the beginning of this era, Do apes ape? has been answered in the affirmative, at least in certain conditions. The more interesting question now is, thus, How do apes ape? Answering this question has engendered richer taxonomies of the range of social-learning processes at work and new methodologies to uncover them. Together, these studies suggest that apes ape by employing a portfolio of alternative social-learning processes in flexibly adaptive ways, in conjunction with nonsocial learning. We conclude by sketching the kind of decision tree that appears to underlie the deployment of these alternatives.

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Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2004