Phonology in the bilingual Stroop effect
In a bilingual Stroop task, we examined between-language interference among proficient Japanese— English bilingual speakers. Participants named ink colors either in Japanese or in English. The Japanese color terms were either phonologically similar to (i.e., loan words) or dissimilar from (i.e., traditional color terms) English color terms. For both response languages, a significant between-language Stroop effect was found despite the orthographic dissimilarity between the languages. The magnitude of the between-language interference was larger with the phonologically similar terms. These findings implicate direct links connecting phonologically similar matching words in the lexicons of proficient bilingual speakers of dissimilar languages and imply that phonological processing in lexical access occurs even when the access is done unintentionally.
- Brauer, M. (1998). Stroop interference in bilinguals: The role of similarity between the two languages. In A. F. Healy & L. E. Bourne, Jr. (Eds.),Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention (pp. 317–337). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Chen, H.-C., &Ho, C. (1986). Development of Stroop interference in Chinese—English bilinguals.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,12, 397–401. CrossRef
- Cohen, J. D., Dunbar, K., &McClelland, J. L. (1990). On the control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed processing account of the Stroop effect.Psychological Review,97, 332–361. CrossRef
- Damian, M. F., &Martin, R. C. (1998). Is visual lexical access based on phonological codes? Evidence from a picture—word interference task.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,5, 91–95. CrossRef
- Davelaar, E., Coltheart, M., Besner, D., &Jonasson, J. T. (1978). Phonological recoding and lexical access.Memory & Cognition,6, 391–402. CrossRef
- Dyer, F. N. (1971). Color-naming interference in monolinguals and bilinguals.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,10, 297–302. CrossRef
- Fang, S. P., Tzeng, O. J. L., &Alva, L. (1981). Intralanguage vs. interlanguage Stroop effects in two types of writing systems.Memory & Cognition,9, 609–617. CrossRef
- Feldman, L. B., &Turvey, M. T. (1980). Words written in Kana are named faster than the same words written in Kanji.Language & Speech,23, 141–147.
- Francis, W. S. (1999). Cognitive integration of language and memory in bilinguals: Semantic representation.Psychological Bulletin,125, 193–222. CrossRef
- Frost, R. (1998). Towards a strong phonological theory of visual word recognition: True issues and false trails.Psychological Bulletin,123, 71–99. CrossRef
- Klein, G. S. (1964). Semantic power measured through the interference of words with color-naming.American Journal of Psychology,77, 576–588. CrossRef
- Kolers, P. A. (1966). Interlingual facilitation of short-term memory.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,5, 314–319. CrossRef
- Kroll, J. F., Michael, E., &Sankaranarayanan, A. (1998). A model of bilingual representation and its implications for second language acquisition. In A. F. Healy & L. E. Bourne, Jr. (Eds.),Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention (pp. 365–395). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Kroll, J. F., &Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations.Journal of Memory & Language,33, 149–174. CrossRef
- Lukatela, G., &Turvey, M. T. (1994). Visual lexical access is initially phonological: 2. Evidence from phonological priming by homophones and pseudohomophones.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,123, 331–353. CrossRef
- MacLeod, C. M. (1991). Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: An integrative review.Psychological Bulletin,109, 163–203. CrossRef
- Mägiste, E. (1984). Stroop tasks and dichotic translation: The development of interference patterns in bilinguals.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,10, 304–315. CrossRef
- Morikawa, Y. (1981). Stroop phenomena in the Japanese language: The case of ideographic characters (Kanji) and syllabic characters (Kana).Perceptual & Motor Skills,53, 67–77.
- Perfetti, C. A., Bell, L. C., &Delaney, S. M. (1988). Automatic (prelexical) phonetic activation in silent word reading: Evidence from backward masking.Journal of Memory & Language,27, 59–70. CrossRef
- Posner, M. I., &Snyder, C. R. R. (1975). Attention and cognitive control. In R. L. Solso (Ed.),Information processing and cognition: The Loyola symposium (pp. 55–85). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Potter, M. C., So, K.-F., Von Eckardt, B., &Feldman, L. B. (1984). Lexical and conceptual representation in beginning and more proficient bilinguals.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,23, 23–38. CrossRef
- Preston, M. S., &Lambert, W. E. (1969). Interlingual interference in a bilingual version of the Stroop color—word task.Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior,8, 295–301. CrossRef
- Roelofs, A. (2003). Goal-referenced selection of verbal action: Modeling attentional control in the Stroop task.Psychological Review,110, 88–125. CrossRef
- Spinks, J. A., Liu, Y., Perfetti, C. A., &Tan, L. H. (2000). Reading Chinese characters for meaning: The role of phonological information.Cognition,76, B1-B11. CrossRef
- Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions.Journal of Experimental Psychology,18, 643–662. CrossRef
- Tzelgov, J., Henik, A., Sneg, R., &Baruch, O. (1996). Unintentional word reading via the phonological route: The Stroop effect with cross-script homophones.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,22, 336–349. CrossRef
- Van Orden, G. C. (1987). A ROWS is a ROSE: Spelling, sound, and reading.Memory & Cognition,15, 181–198. CrossRef
- Phonology in the bilingual Stroop effect
Memory & Cognition
Volume 32, Issue 5 , pp 752-758
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links