Intentional forgetting benefits from thought substitution
This study provides both experimental and correlational evidence that forgetting in the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001) is sensitive to the substitution of thoughts about new events for thoughts that are to be suppressed. All the participants learned a list of adjective-noun pairs. Then the adjectives were presented as cues for recalling half of the nouns and as cues for suppressing the other half, 0, 2, or 12 times.Aided participants were provided with substitute nouns, to use during suppression. On a final test that requested recall of all initially learned nouns, aided participants showed evidence of below-baseline forgetting of suppressed nouns.Unaided participants produced below-baseline forgetting only if their later self-reports indicated that they had complied relatively well with instructions for suppression. Independently, forgetting in the unaided condition was more successful when the participants reportedly thought about something else during suppression trials. In general, the use of selfinitiated strategiesseems to affect the degree of forgetting in the think/no-think paradigm.
- Anderson, M. C.(2003). Rethinking interference theory: Executive control and the mechanisms of forgetting.Journal of Memory & Language,49, 415–445. CrossRef
- Anderson, M. C., &Green, C. (2001). Suppressing unwanted memories by executive control.Nature,410, 366–369. CrossRef
- Anderson, M. C., &McCulloch, K. C. (1999). Integration as a general boundary condition on retrieval-induced forgetting.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition,25, 608–629. CrossRef
- Anderson, M. C., &Neely, J. H. (1996). Interference and inhibition in memory retrieval. In E. L. Bjork & R. A. Bjork (Eds.),Memory (pp. 237–313). San Diego: Academic Press. CrossRef
- Anderson, M. C., Ochsner, K. N., Kuhl, B., Cooper, J., Robertson, E., Gabrieli, S.W., Glover, G. H., &Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2004). Neural systems underlying the suppression of unwanted memories.Science,303, 232–235. CrossRef
- Anderson, M. C., &Spellman, B. A. (1995). On the status of inhibitory mechanisms in cognition: Memory retrieval as a model case.Psychological Review,102, 68–100. CrossRef
- Barnes, J. M., &Underwood, B. J. (1959). “Fate” of first-list associations in transfer theory.Journal of Experimental Psychology,58, 97–105. CrossRef
- Beck, A. T., Ward, C., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., &Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression.Archives of General Psychiatry,4, 561–571.
- Bulevich, J. B., Roediger, H. L., III, & Balota, D. A. (2003, November).Can episodic memories be suppressed? Paper presented at the 44th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Vancouver.
- Hertel, P. T., &Gerstle, M. (2003). Depressive deficits in forgetting.Psychological Science,14, 573–578. CrossRef
- Hertel, P. T., &Parks, C. (2002). Emotional episodes facilitate word recall.Cognition & Emotion,16, 685–694. CrossRef
- Kčcera, H., &Francis, W. N. (1967).Computational analysis of present-day American English. Providence, RI: Brown University Press.
- Paivio, A., Yuille, J. C., &Madigan, S. A. (1968). Concreteness, imagery and meaningfulness values for 925 nouns.Journal of Experimental Psychology Monograph Supplement,76(1, Pt. 2), 1–25. CrossRef
- Rubin, D. C., &Friendly, M. (1986). Predicting which words get recalled: Measures of free recall, availability, goodness, emotionality, and pronunciability for 925 nouns.Memory & Cognition,14, 79–94. CrossRef
- Wegner, D. M. (1994). Ironic processes of mental control.Psychological Review,101, 34–52. CrossRef
- Intentional forgetting benefits from thought substitution
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Volume 12, Issue 3 , pp 484-489
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links