Journal of NeuroVirology

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 390-400

First online:

Measurement of soluble inflammatory mediators in cerebrospinal fluid of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients at distinct stages of infection by solid-phase protein array

  • Thorsten NoltingAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, University Hospital Düsseldorf Email author 
  • , Antje LindeckeAffiliated withBiomedical Research Center (BMFZ), Heinrich-Heine-University
  • , Eleni KoutsilieriAffiliated withDepartment of Virology and Immunobiology, University of Würzburg
  • , Matthias MaschkeAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, University Hospital of Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen
  • , Ingo-W. HusstedtAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, University of Münster
  • , Sieghart SopperAffiliated withGerman Primate Center
  • , Olaf StüveAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, University Hospital DüsseldorfUniversity of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center
  • , Hans-Peter HartungAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, University Hospital Düsseldorf
  • , Gabriele ArendtAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine-University, University Hospital Düsseldorf

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The objective of this study was to evaluate immune cytokine expression in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) using a novel cytokine array assay. HIV-1 induces a condition resembling classical subcortical dementia, known as HAD. The immune mechanisms contributing to HAD have not been elucidated. Cytokine expression in CSF was determined by solid-phase protein array in 33 neurologically asymptomatic HIV-positive male patients and were compared to levels in non-HIV controls and patients with HAD. Neurological examinations and lumbar and venous punctures were conducted in all patients and controls. Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-10, were up-regulated in all treated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients independent of neurological status compared to controls. In contrast, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IL-1α, IL-15, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were highly expressed in patients with HAD compared to undemented HIV-positive patients. These results show that solid-phase protein array can detect immunological changes in patients infected with HIV. Cytokine expression levels differ in different disease stages and in patients on different treatment paradigms. Pending further validation on a larger number of patients, this method may be a useful tool in CSF diagnostics and the longitudinal evaluation of patient with HAD.


chemokine cytokine HIV neuro-AIDS protein array