Diesel soot combustion catalysts: review of active phases

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Abstract

The most relevant information about the different active phases that have been studied for the catalytic combustion of soot is reviewed and discussed in this article. Many catalysts have been reported to accelerate soot combustion, including formulations with noble metals, alkaline metals and alkaline earth metals, transition metals that can accomplish redox cycles (V, Mn, Co, Cu, Fe, etc.), and internal transition metals. Platinum catalysts are among those of most interest for practical applications, and an important feature of these catalysts is that sulphur-resistant platinum formulations have been prepared. Some metal oxide-based catalysts also appear to be promising candidates for soot combustion in practical applications, including ceria-based formulations and mixed oxides with perovskite and spinel structures. Some of these metal oxide catalysts produce highly reactive active oxygen species that promote efficient soot combustion. Thermal stability is an important requirement for a soot combustion catalyst, which precludes the practical utilisation of several potential catalysts such as most alkaline metal catalysts, molten salts, and metal chlorides. Some noble metal catalysts are also unstable due to the formation of volatile oxides (ruthenium, iridium, and osmium).