Research Article

Central European Journal of Biology

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 559-568

First online:

In vivo and in vitro antioxidant effects of three Veronica species

  • Jelena ŽivkovićAffiliated withInstitute for Medicinal Plant Research “Dr Josif Pančić” Email author 
  • , Tatjana ĆebovićAffiliated withDepartment of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Novi Sad
  • , Zoran MaksimovićAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade

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The aim of the present study was to examine the antioxidant activity of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae). The antioxidant potential of various extracts obtained from aerial flowering parts was evaluated by DPPH-free (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-free) radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. Considerable antioxidant activity was observed in the plant samples (FRAP values ranged from 0.97 to 4.85 mmol Fe2+/g, and DPPH IC50 values from 12.58 to 66.34 µg/ml); however, these levels were lower than the activity of the control compound butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (FRAP: 10.58 mmol Fe2+/g; DPPH IC50: 9.57 µg/ml). Also, the in vivo antioxidant effects were evaluated in several hepatic antioxidant systems in rats (activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase, catalase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione content and level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) after treatment with different Veronica extracts, or in combination with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg b.w. of Veronica extracts inhibited CCl4-induced liver injury by decreasing TBA-RS level, increasing GSH content, and bringing the activities of CAT and Px to control levels. The present study suggests that the extracts analyzed could protect the liver cells from CCl4-induced liver damage by their antioxidative effect on hepatocytes.


Antioxidant activity Veronica species Carbon tetrachloride Lipid peroxidation Biochemical parameters