Adams, P.F. and M.A. Marano. 1995. Current Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, 1994. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Agree, E.M. and V.A. Freedman. 1999. “Implications of Population Aging for Geriatric Health.” Pp. 659–69 in Reichel’s Care of the Elderly: Clinical Aspects of Aging, 5th ed., edited by J.J. Gallo. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Antonucci, T.C., H. Akiyama, and P.K. Adelmann. 1990. “Health Behaviors and Social Roles Among Mature Men and Women.” Journal of Aging and Health
Boult, C., R.L. Kane, and T.A. Louis. 1994. “Chronic Conditions That Lead to Functional Limitation in the Elderly.” Journal of Gerontology 49(1):M28–36.
Christen, W.G., R.J. Glynn, and C.H. Hennekens. 1996. “Antioxidants and Age-Related Eye Disease.” Annals of Epidemiology
Christen, W.G., R.J. Glynn, J.E. Manson, U.A. Ajani, and J.E. Buring. 1996. “A Prospective Study of Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Men.” Journal of the American Medical Association
Christen, W.G., J.E. Manson, J.M. Seddon, R.J. Glynn, J.E. Buring, B. Rosner, and C.H. Hennekens. 1992. “A Prospective Study of Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Cataract in Men.” Journal of the American Medical Association
Clark, D.O. 1997. “U.S. Trends in Disability and Institutionalization Among Older Blacks and Whites.” American Journal of Public Health
Coroni-Huntley, J., D.B. Brock, A.M. Ostfeld, J.O. Taylor, and R.B. Wallace, eds. 1990. Established Populations for Epidemiological Studies of the Elderly. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Aging.
Crimmins, E.M., Y. Saito, and S.L. Reynolds. 1997. “Further Evidence on Recent Trends in the Prevalence and Incidence of Disability Among Older Americans From Two Sources: The LSOA and the NHIS.” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 52B:S59–71.
Das Gupta, P.D. 1993. Standardization and Decomposition of Rates: A User’s Manual. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Elo, I.T. and S.H. Preston. 1996. “Educational Differentials in Mortality: United States, 1979–1985.” Social Science and Medicine
Freedman, V.A. and L.G. Martin. 1998. “Understanding Trends in Functional Limitations Among Older Americans.” American Journal of Public Health
Goldman, N. 1993. “Marriage Selection and Mortality Patterns: Inferences and Fallacies.” Demography
Goldzweig, C.L., B.S. Mittman, G.M. Carter, T. Donyo, R.H. Brook, P. Lee, and C.M. Mangione. 1997. “Variations in Cataract Extraction Rates in Medicare Prepaid and Fee-for-Service Settings.” Journal of the American Medical Association
House, J.S., R.C. Kessler, A.R. Herzog, R.P. Mero, A.M. Kinney, and M.J. Breslow. 1990. “Age, Socioeconomic Status, and Health.” The Milbank Quarterly
Houston, D.K., T.D. Daniel, M.A. Johnson, and L. Poon. 1998. “Demographic Characteristics of Supplement Users in an Elderly Population.” Journal of Applied Gerontology
Kitagawa, E.M. 1955. “Components of a Difference Between Two Rates.” Journal of the American Statistical Association
Kitagawa, E.M. and P.M. Hauser. 1973. Differential Mortality in the United States: A Study in Socioeconomic Epidemiology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
LaPlante, M.P. 1992. “Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to Study Disability Research and Policy.” Journal of Economic and Social Measurement 18:125–54.
Lillard, L.A. and L.J. Waite. 1995. “‘Til Death Do Us Part’: Marital Disruption and Mortality.” American Journal of Sociology
Manton, K.G., L.S. Corder, and E. Stallard. 1993. “Estimates of Change in Chronic Disability and Institutional Incidence and Prevalence Rates in the U.S. Elderly Population From the 1982, 1984 and 1989 National Long Term Care Survey.” Journal of Gerontology 48:S153–66.
— 1997. “Chronic Disability Trends in Elderly United States Populations: 1982–1994.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Manton, K.G. and E. Stallard. 1997. “Health and Disability Differences Among Racial and Ethnic Groups.” Pp. 43–105 in Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Health of Older Americans, edited by L.G. Martin and B.J. Soldo. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Markides, J.S., L. Rudkin, R.J. Angel, and D.V Espino. 1997. “Health Status of Hispanic Elderly.” Pp. 285–300 in Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Health of Older Americans, edited by L.G. Martin and B.J. Soldo. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Marmot, M.G. 1998. “Improvement of Social Environment to Improve Health.” The Lancet
Mayer-Oakes, S.A., H. Hoenig, K.A. Atchison, J.E. Lubben, and F. DeJong. 1992. “Patient-Related Predictors of Rehabilitation Use for Community-Dwelling Older Americans.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 40(4):336–42.
Nagi, S.Z. 1965. “Some Conceptual Issues in Disability and Rehabilitation.” Pp. 100–13 in Sociology and Rehabilitation, edited by M.B. Sussman. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.
— 1991. “Disability Concepts Revisited: Implications for Prevention.” Pp. 309–27 in Disability in America: Toward a National Agenda for Prevention, edited by A.M. Pope and A.R. Tarlov. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Pierce, J.P., M.C. Fiore, T.E. Novotny, E.J. Hatziandreu, and R.M. Davis. 1989. “Trends in Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Educational Differences Are Increasing.” Journal of the American Medical Association
Pope, A.M. and A. Tarlov, eds. 1991. Disability in America: Toward a National Agenda for Prevention. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Preston, S.H. and P. Taubman. 1994. “Socioeconomic Differences in Adult Mortality and Health Status.” Pp.279–3188 in Demography of Aging, edited by L.G. Martin and S.H. Preston. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Rogowski, J., L.A Lillard, and R. Kington. 1997. “Financial Burden of Prescription Drug Use Among Elderly Persons.” The Gerontologist 37(4):475–82.
Ross, C.E. and C.L. Wu. 1995. “The Links Between Education and Health.” American Sociological Review
— 1996. “Education, Age, and the Cumulative Advantage in Health.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Seddon, J.M., W.C. Willett, F.E. Speizer, and S.E. Hankinson. 1996. “A Prospective Study of Cigarette Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Women.” Journal of the American Medical Association
Smith, J.P. 1995a. “Racial and Ethnic Differences in Wealth in the Health and Retirement Study.” Journal of Human Resources
— 1995b. “Unequal Wealth and Incentives to Save.” RAND Documented Briefing 145-RC. Santa Monica: RAND.
Smith, J.P. and R.S. Kington. 1997. “Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health in Late Life.” Pp. 106–62 in Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Health of Older Americans, edited by L.G. Martin and B.J. Soldo. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Stoto, M.A and J.S. Durch. 1993. Forecasting Survival, Health, and Disability: Workshop Summary, March 9–10, 1992. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1984. Detailed Population Characteristics. 1980 Census of Population, PC80-1-D1, United States Summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
—. 1986. Disability, Functional Limitation and Health Insurance Coverage: 1984/85. Current Population Reports, Series P70, No. 8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
—. 1991. Survey of Income and Program Participation Users’ Guide. Supplement to the Technical Documentation. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census.
—. 1994. Education in the United States. 1990 Census of Population, CP-3-4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
—. 1996. 65+ in the United States. Current Population Reports, Special Studies, P23-190. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Verbrugge, L.M. 1990. “The Iceberg of Disability.” Pp. 55–78 in The Legacy of Longevity: Health and Health Care in Late Life, edited by S. Stahl. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Wiener, J.M., R.J. Hanley, and R. Clark. 1990. “Measuring the Activities of Daily Living: Comparisons Across National Surveys.” Journal of Gerontology 45:S229–37.
Wilmoth, J.R. 1997. “In Search of Limits.” Pp. 38–64 in Between Zeus and the Salmon: The Biodemography of Longevity, edited by K.W. Wachter and C.E. Finch. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Winkleby, M.A, S.P. Fortmann, and D.C. Barrett. 1989. “Social Class Disparities in Risk Factors for Disease: Eight-Year Prevalence Patterns by Level of Education.” Preventive Medicine
Wister, A.V. 1996. “Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Exercise and Smoking: Age-Related Differences.” Journal of Aging and Health
Wolinsky, F.D., J.F. Fitzgerald, and T.E. Stump. 1997. “Effect of Hip Fracture on Mortality, Hospitalization, and Functional Status: A Prospective Study.” American Journal of Public Health