, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 459-479

Five decades of missing females in China

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Abstract

This paper seeks to explain the dearth of females in the population of China in cohorts born from the late 1930s to the present. We demonstrate that in virtually all cohorts. the shortage of females in comparison with males is revealed when the cohort is first enumerated in a census. Subsequently it barely changes, an indication that female losses occur very early in life. Using the high-quality data from the censuses and fertility surveys in China, we show that many of the births of the girls missing in the censuses were not reported in the surveys because they died very young. The incidence of excess early female mortality (probably infanticide) declined precipitously in the Communist period, but not to zero. The recent escalation in the proportion of young females missing in China has been caused largely by rapidly escalating sex-selective abortion.

This article originated with a paper presented at the October 1993 conference on the 1990 Census of China, held in Beijing. Another, slightly different version was published as: Five Decades of Missing Females in China (Office of Population Research, Princeton University, Working Paper Series, 93–6; also available from the Center for International Research, U.S. Bureau of the Census).