On the basis of newly acquired morphological evidence gathered in the course of floristic studies, the monotypic genus Neowawraea Rock is now recognized as a species of Flueggea Willd. and is renamed F. neowawraea W. J. Hayden. Taxonomic documentation presented for F. neowawraea includes an expanded morphological description, a map showing its widely scattered distribution in the Hawaiian Islands to which the species is endemic, and discussions of type specimens, common names, and its extreme rarity. The combination of flowers in pedicellate axillary clusters, the lobed staminate disk, pistillode, extrorse anthers, hemitropous ovules, and, especially, the smoothish dry seeds with a deep sub-hilar pit indicate placement in section Flueggea subsection Flueggea. The newly recognized species appears most closely related to F. flexuosa Muell. Arg.