Antonucci, T.C. 1990. “Social Supports and Social Relationships.” Pp. 205–16 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, 3rd edition, edited by R.H. Binstock and L.K. George. New York: Academic Press.
Berkman, L.F. and S.L. Syme. 1979. “Social Networks, Host Resistance, and Mortality: A Nine-Year Follow-up Study of Alameda County Residents.” American Journal of Epidemiology 109:186–204.
Bryant, S. and W. Rakowski. 1992. “Predictors of Mortality Among Elderly African Americans.” Research on Aging
Chyba, M.M. and L.R. Washington. 1993. “Questionnaires From the National Health Interview Survey, 1985–1989.” Vital and Health Statistics 1:31.
Comstock, G.W. and K.B. Partridge. 1972. “Church Attendance and Health.” Journal of Chronic Diseases
Comstock, G.W. and J.A. Tonascia. 1976. “Education and Mortality in Washington County, Maryland.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Durkheim, E.  1951. Suicide: A Study in Sociology. New York: Free Press.
Dwyer, J.W., L.L. Clarke, and M.K. Miller. 1990. “The Effect of Religious Concentration and Affiliation on County Cancer Mortality Rates.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Ellison, C.G. 1991. “Religious Involvement and Subjective Well-Being.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior
—. 1994. “Religion, the Life Stress Paradigm, and the Study of Depression.” Pp. 78–124 in Religion in Aging and Health: Theoretical Foundations and Methodological Frontiers, edited by J. Levin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Ellison, C.G. and L.K. George. 1994. “Religious Involvement, Social Ties, and Social Support in a Southeastern Community.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion
Ellison, C.G. and J.S. Levin. 1998. “The Religion-Health Connection: Evidence, Theory, and Future Directions.” Health Education and Behavior
Gardner, J.W. and J.L. Lyon. 1982. “Cancer in Utah Mormon Men by Lay Priesthood Level.” American Journal of Epidemiology 116:243–57.
Goldstein, S. 1996. “Changes in Jewish Mortality and Survival, 1963–1987.” Social Biology 43:72–97.
Hadaway, C.K., P.L. Marler, and M. Chaves. 1998. “Over-Reporting Church Attendance in America: Evidence That Demands the Same Verdict.” American Sociological Review
House, J.S., K.R. Landis, and D. Umberson. 1988. “Social Relationships and Health.” Science
House, J.S., C. Robbins, and H.L. Metzner. 1982. “The Association of Social Relationships and Activities With Mortality: Prospective Evidence From the Tecumseh Community Health Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology 116:123–40.
Hout, M. and A. Greeley. 1998. “What Church Officials’ Reports Don’t Show: Another Look at Church Attendance Data.” American Sociological Review
Idler, E. 1987. “Religious Involvement and the Health of the Elderly: Some Hypotheses and an Initial Test.” Social Forces
Idler, E. and Y. Benyamini. 1997. “Self-Reported Health and Mortality: A Review of Twenty-Seven Community Studies.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Idler, E.L. and S.V. Kasl. 1992. “Religion, Disability, Depression, and the Timing of Death.” American Journal of Sociology
Jarvis, G.K. and H.C. Northcott. 1987. “Religion and Differences in Morbidity and Mortality.” Social Science and Medicine
Kark, J.D., G. Shemi, Y. Friedlander, O. Martin, O. Manor, and S.H. Blondheim. 1996. “Does Religious Observance Promote Health? Mortality in Secular vs. Religious Kibbutzim in Israel.” American Journal of Public Health
Krause, N. 1998. “Stressors in Highly Valued Roles, Religious Coping, and Mortality.” Psychology and Aging
Levin, J.S. 1994a. “Investigating the Epidemiologic Effects of Religious Experience: Findings, Explanations, and Barriers.” Pp. 3–17 in Religion in Aging and Health: Theoretical Foundations and Methodological Frontiers, edited by J.S. Levin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
—. 1994b. “Religion and Health: Is There an Association, Is it Valid, and Is it Causal?” Social Science and Medicine
—. 1994c. “Introduction: Religion in Aging and Health.” Pp. xv-xxiv in Religion in Aging and Health: Theoretical Foundations and Methodological Frontiers, edited by J.S. Levin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Levin, J.S. and K.S. Markides. 1986. “Religious Attendance and Subjective Health.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion
Levin, J.S. and P.L. Schiller. 1987. “Is There a Religious Factor in Health?” Journal of Religion and Health
Levin, J.S., R.J. Taylor, and L.M. Chatters. 1994. “Race and Gender Differences in Religiosity Among Older Adults: Findings From Four National Surveys.” Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 49:S137–45.
Levin, J.S. and H.Y. Vanderpool. 1989. “Is Religion Therapeutically Significant for Hypertension?” Social Science and Medicine
Link, B.G. and J. Phelan. 1995. “Social Conditions as Fundamental Causes of Disease.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Lyon, J.L., M.R. Klauber, J.W. Gardner, and C.R. Smart. 1976. “Cancer Incidence in Mormons and Non-Mormons in Utah, 1966–1970.” New England Journal of Medicine
McCullough, M.E., D.B. Larson, H.G. Koenig, and M.G. Milano. 1998. “A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Religious Involvement and Mortality.” Unpublished manuscript, National Institute for Healthcare Research.
Musick, M.A. 1996. “Religion and Subjective Health Among Black and White Elders.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). 1989. National Health Interview Survey, 1987: Cancer Risk Factor Supplement, Epidemiology Study. Data and documentation. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service.
—. 1996. Vital Statistics of the U.S., 1991, Volume II, Mortality, Part A. Washington, DC: Public Health Service.
—. 1997. National Health Interview Survey-Multiple Cause of Death Public Use Data, 1986–1994 Survey Years. Data and documentation. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service.
Patterson, B.H. and R. Bilgrad. 1986. “Use of the National Death Index in Cancer Studies.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 77:877–81.
Phillips, R.L., J.W. Kuzma, W.L. Benson, and T. Lotz. 1980. “Influence of Selection Versus Lifestyle on Risk of Fatal Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease Among Seventh-Day Adventist Men.” Journal of the American Medical Association 198:137–46.
Preston, S.H. and P. Taubman. 1994. “Socioeconomic Differences in Adult Mortality and Health Status.” Pp. 279–318 in Demography of Aging, edited by L. Martin and S. Preston. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Rogers, R.G. 1996. “The Effects of Family Composition, Health, and Social Support Linkages on Mortality.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Seeman, T.E., G.A. Kaplan, L. Knudsen, R. Cohen, and J. Guralnik. 1987. “Social Network Ties and Mortality Among the Elderly in the Alameda County Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology 126:714–23.
Shah, B.V., B.G. Barnwell, and G.S. Bieler. 1996. SUDAANUser’s Manual, Release 7.0. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.
Smith, T.W. 1998. “A Review of Church Attendance Measures.” American Sociological Review
Strawbridge, W.J., R.D. Cohen, S.J. Shema, and G.J. Kaplan. 1997. “Frequent Attendance at Religious Services and Mortality Over 28 Years.” American Journal of Public Health
Taylor, R.J. and L.M. Chatters. 1986. “Church Based Informal Support Among Elderly Blacks.” The Gerontologist 26:637–42.
Taylor, R.J., L.M. Chatters, R. Jayakody, and J.S. Levin. 1996. “Black and White Differences in Religious Participation: A Multi-Sample Comparison.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1990. International Classification of Diseases, Vol. 1, 9th revision, 3rd edition. DHHS Publication 89-1260. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Van der Gaad, J. and E. Smolensky. 1982. “True Household Equivalence Scales and Characteristics of the Poor in the United States.” Review of Income and Wealth
Williams, D.R. 1994. “The Measurement of Religion in Epidemiologic Studies: Problems and Prospects.” Pp. 125–48 in Religion in Aging and Health: Theoretical Foundations and Methodological Frontiers, edited by J.S. Levin. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Wingard, D.L. 1982. “The Sex Differential in Mortality Rates: Demographic and Behavioral Factors.” American Journal of Epidemiology 115:205–16.
Zhang, J., K. Markides, and D. Lee. 1991. “Health Status of Diabetic Mexican Americans: Results From the Hispanic HANES.” Ethnicity and Disease 1:273–79.
Zuckerman, D.M., S.V. Kasl, and A.M. Ostfeld. 1984. “Psychosocial Predictors of Mortality Among the Elderly Poor: The Role of Religion, Weil-Being, and Social Contacts.” American Journal of Epidemiology 119:410–23.