Differential effects of salinity and soil saturation on native and exotic plants of a coastal salt marsh
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In many southern California salt marshes, increased freshwater inflows have promoted the establishment of exotic plant species. A comparative study showed that a native, perennial, high marsh dominant,Salicornia subterminalis, and an invasive, exotic annual grass,Polypogon monspeliensis, responded differently to soil salinity and saturation.Salicornia subterminalis seeds and young plants were more salt tolerant, and the native grew best at high salinities (23 g 1−1 and 34 g 1−1) in greenhouse experiments. In contrast, the exotic had reduced growth at high salinities relative to nonsaline controls. The native,S. subterminalis, grew poorly as the duration of soil saturation increased from 2 wk to 32 wk, butP. monspeliensis grew equally well for all durations tested. The response ofS. subterminalis andP. monspeliensis to increased salinity indicated that salt applications might be used to protect native vegetation in salt marshes where salt-sensitive exotics are a problem. A field experiment verified that a salt application of 850 g m−2 mo−1 for 3 mo was sufficient to control the exotic, while not noticeably affecting the native. Thus, salt applications may be a practical method for controllingP. monspeliensis invasions in areas receiving urban runoff or other unwanted freshwater inflows.
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